In this tutorial I discuss how we use dialysis tubing in experiments 6.2 and 6.3. For more information regarding the actual outcomes of these experiments, please refer to the reviews regarding these experiments.
As part of a Macromolecules project ran by the University of York, I have researched two polymers found in everyday products and produced this video. It is targeted at A Level students with detailed explanations. I hope you find the video helpful and informative and next time you use one of the mentioned products, check the label and see if you can find either of these polymers! **OTHERS BRANDS ARE AVAILABLE** References: http://pslc.ws/mactest/maindir.htm http://www.britannica.com/science/initiator-polymerization https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypropylene_glycol http://www.lookchem.com/Polypropylene-Glycol-Butyl-Ether/ http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/ppg-14-butyl-ether The Dow Chemical Company. Product Safety Assessment DOWANOLTM PnB Glycol Ether [Propylene Glycol n-Butyl Ether]. 2015: http://msdssearch.dow.com/PublishedLiteratureDOWCOM/dh_094c/0901b8038094c561.pdf?filepath=productsafety/pdfs/noreg/233-00409.pdf&fromPage=GetDoc http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/438111?lang=en®ion=GB Rexin O, Mülhaupt R. Anionic ring-opening polymerization of propylene oxide in the presence of phosphonium catalysts. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2002; 40(7) Chinn, Henry, “Glycol Ethers,” Marketing Research Report: Chemical Economics Handbook, SRI Consulting Lanigan RS; Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. Amended final report on the safety assessment of PPG-40 butyl ether with an addendum to include PPG-2, -4, -5, -9, -12, -14, -15, -16, -17, -18, -20, -22, -24, -26, -30, -33, -52, and -53 butyl ethers. Int J Toxicol 2001;20 Suppl 4:39-52. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyethylene_glycol https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polydimethylsiloxane http://www.britannica.com/topic/industrial-polymers-468698/Unsaturated-polyesters#ref608767 https://www.truthinaging.com/ingredients/peg-12-dimethicone http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/704504/PEG-12_DIMETHICONE/# http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/peg-12-dimethicone http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Crosslinked+polymer http://www.clearcoproducts.com/pdf/cosmetic/NP-PEG-12-Dimethicone.pdf Gottschalck TE and Breslawec HP. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 14 ed. Washington, DC: Personal Care Products Council; 2012. Dow Corning Corporation. XIAMETER® OFX-0193 Fluid. 2013: https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwjV99-rnfDLAhVGwBQKHWsyCFAQjB0IBA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.xiameter.com%2FEN%2FPages%2FRetrieveDocument.aspx%3Ftype%3DLit%26DocumentId%3D090276fe8019052a%26s%3D169547&psig=AFQjCNG3MVz-wu6EZoi8gqoLTqY2aNUhDQ&ust=1459695957377124&cad=rjt Wegner, J. and Littau, C. (2010). Foaming alcohol compositions with selected dimethicone surfactants. US 7842725 B2. http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/glossary/letter_h#Hair_Conditioning_Agent http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/glossary/letter_s#Surfactant_-_Emulsifying_Agent http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/polymers/silicones.html Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA. Safety Assessment of Dimethicone Crosspolymers as Used in Cosmetics. Int J Toxicol. 2014 May 26;33(2 suppl):65S-115S. IMAGE CREDITS: http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2013/0... https://www.acceleratedstudynotes.com... http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-conten... https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi... http://www.konincorp.com/en/prod_deta... https://www.etreavis.com/acatalog/Men... https://groceries.morrisons.com/produ... http://fashion-and-beauty.org/images/... http://groceries.iceland.co.uk/medias...
Sigma-Aldrich Japan K.K. Microreactor On Hands Training June, 2010 #3
Sigma-Aldrich Japan K.K. Microreactor On Hands Training June, 2010 #6
RDT DNA INSERTION TECNIQUE MICROINJECTION
Sigma-Aldrich Japan K.K. Microreactor On Hands Training June, 2010 #4
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Injection procedure for zebra fish. Cancer research at BYU-Idaho.
Storage without a stabilizing surfactant. This storage method uses wells adjacent to, but connected to the flow channel. The drops flow by the wells when moving at high flow rates if the well is shallow in depth, comparable with the height of the flow channel. When the flow stops the drops spontaneously dock into the nearest well in a game of microfluidic musical chairs. In this method the first drop docks into the last well and the last drop docks into the first well. Without surfactant to stabilize the drop some mixing of drops occurs and typically the contents of about three or four adjacent drops are shared. In this movie a fluorinated oil (FC-43, 3M) mixed with a surfactant (12%w/w, Tridecafluoro octanol, Sigma-Aldrich) was used. The surfactant lowers surface tension making it easy to create drops and simultaneously slows coalescence of drops. Extraction of the drops from the wells is possible when the flow direction is reversed, making recovery of the droplets possible. The movie is recorded in real time. http://www.brandeis.edu/departments/physics/complexfluids/fraden/papers/JACSPhaseBehaviorSI2007.pdf http://www.brandeis.edu/departments/physics/complexfluids/fraden/papers/JACSPhaseBehavior2007.pdf