Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships Although air pollution from ships does not have the direct cause and effect associated with, for example, an oil spill incident, it causes a cumulative effect that contributes to the overall air quality problems encountered by populations in many areas, and also affects the natural environment, such as tough acid rain. MARPOL Annex VI, first adopted in 1997, limits the main air pollutants contained in ships exhaust gas, including sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrous oxides (NOx), and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances (ODS). MARPOL Annex VI also regulates shipboard incineration, and the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from tankers. Following entry into force of MARPOL Annex VI on 19 May 2005,the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), at its 53rd session (July 2005), agreed to revise MARPOL Annex VI with the aim of significantly strengthening the emission limits in light of technological improvements and implementation experience. As a result of three years examination, MEPC 58 (October 2008) adopted the revised MARPOL Annex VI and the associated NOx Technical Code 2008, which entered into force on 1 July 2010. Revised MARPOL Annex VI The main changes to MARPOL Annex VI are a progressive reduction globally in emissions of SOx, NOx and particulate matter and the introduction of emission control areas (ECAs) to reduce emissions of those air pollutants further in designated sea areas. Under the revised MARPOL Annex VI, the global sulphur cap will be reduced from current 3.50% to 0.50%, effective from 1 January 2020, subject to a feasibility review to be completed no later than 2018. MEPC 70 (October 2016) considered an assessment of fuel oil availability to inform the decision to be taken by the Parties to MARPOL Annex VI, and decided that the fuel oil standard (0.50% sulphur limit) shall become effective on 1 January 2020. The limits applicable in ECAs for SOx and particulate matter were reduced to 0.10%, from 1 January 2015. Progressive reductions in NOx emissions from marine diesel engines installed on ships are also included, with a "Tier II" emission limit for engines installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 2011; and a more stringent "Tier III" emission limit for engines installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 2016 operating in ECAs (North American Emission Control Area and the U.S. Caribbean Sea Emission Control Area). Marine diesel engines installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 1990 but prior to 1 January 2000 are required to comply with "Tier I" emission limits, if an approved method for that engine has been certified by an Administration. The revised NOx Technical Code 2008 includes a new chapter based on the agreed approach for regulation of existing (pre-2000) engines established in MARPOL Annex VI, provisions for a direct measurement and monitoring method, a certification procedure for existing engines and test cycles to be applied to Tier II and Tier III engines.MEPC 66 (April 2014) adopted amendments to regulation 13 of MARPOL Annex VI regarding the effective date of NOx Tier III standards. The amendments provide for the Tier III NOx standards to be applied to a marine diesel engine that is installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 2016 and which operates in the North American Emission Control Area or the U.S. Caribbean Sea Emission Control Area that are designated for the control of NOx emissions. In addition, the Tier III requirements would apply to installed marine diesel engines when operated in other emission control areas which might be designated in the future for Tier III NOx control. Tier III would apply to ships constructed on or after the date of adoption by the Marine Environment Protection Committee of such an emission control area, or a later date as may be specified in the amendment designating the NOx Tier III emission control area. Further, the Tier III requirements do not apply to a marine diesel engine installed on a ship constructed prior to 1 January 2021 of less than 500 gross tonnage, of 24 m or over in length, which has been specifically designed and is used solely, for recreational purposes. Revisions to the regulations for ozone-depleting substances, volatile organic compounds, shipboard incineration, reception facilities and fuel oil quality were also made with regulations on fuel oil availability added.The revised measures are expected to have a significant beneficial impact on the atmospheric environment and on human health, particularly for those people living in port cities and coastal communities.
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MARPOL Annex 73/78 list of all the annex (PRESENT AND PROPOSED ) ANNEX I TO ANNEX VI __present ANNEX VII TO ANNEX X __proposed Website:- https://harshithanchan15.wixsite.com/whitecollar FB:- https://www.facebook.com/whitecollar5/ LIKE AND COMMENT :-)
Download File: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/sewage-holding-tank-capacity-calculations-m-s-imran?published=t Regulation For Sewage Waste – MARPOL ANNEX IV The sewage waste discharge from the ship is regulated under MARPOL Annex IV. The regulation states that: – Every ship of 400 GT and above which is engaged in international voyages, and carrying minimum 15 persons onboard must be equipped with either a sewage holding tank of appropriate capacity or an approved sewage Treatment Plant (STP) or both – The sewage discharge from the ship is allowed if it has an approved sewage treatment plant, which can treat the raw sewage and discharge comminuted and disinfected sewage. With this arrangement, the discharge is allowed at a distance of more than 3 nautical miles from the nearest land when the ship is proceeding with a speed of 4 knots and above – Foreign going cargo ships may be allowed (depending upon the area they are plying) to discharge untreated sewage only at a distance greater than 12 nautical miles from the closest land only if the ship is proceeding with a speed of 4 knots and above – The ship has to maintain the rate of discharge of the sewage from the ship as recommended by the administration
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You can find any Lecture on Admiralty or Maritime Law http://onlineclassess.com/2017/10/03/admiralty-law/ Introduction and nature of jurisdiction; enforceable maritime claims; Exercise of jurisdiction, actions in rem and in personam, maritime liens and procedure; Rules and doctrines restricting the jurisdiction of the Admiralty court; Convention jurisdiction basis and multiple proceedings; Safety regulations in navigation, liabilities and limitation of liability, Collision regulations for conduct of vessels, Criminal liabilities for breach of statutes or breach of duty, Civil liabilities for negligence causing damage; apportionment of loss and measure of damages; limitation of liability, assistance at sea and in ports, the concept of salvage under maritime law and the Salvage Conventions, preconditions and elements of salvage; salvage agreements; Modern Admiralty Law Book by Aleka Mandaraka Lucidly explaining the legal principles of Admiralty Law in a modern context, this new edition has been fully revised and updated to include recent case law and legislation, including extensive treatment of developments within the EC. Examining the law within a commercial perspective with suggestions for how legal risks should be managed, this is the ideal text for postgraduates studying admiralty or shipping law as well as professionals within the shipping industry. Admiralty Court Act 1840 (Application in Bangladesh is Repealed) Admiralty Court Act 1861 (Application in Bangladesh is Repealed) Courts of Admiralty Act 1891 (Repealed) Admiralty Court Act, 2000 Aircraft (Removal of Danger to Safety) Ordinance Asian Re-insurance Corporation Act Bangladesh Flag Vessels (Protection) Ordinance Bangladesh Merchant Shipping Ordinance Bangladesh Shipping Corporation Order Bangladesh Water Act Bill of Lading Act Convention on the International Maritime Organization (IMO), 1948 Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic, 1965 International Convention on Load Lines, 1966 International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969 International Convention relating to Intervention on the High Seas in cases of Oil Pollution Casualties, 1969 International Conference on Special Trade Passenger Ships Agreement (STP), 1971 Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 Protocol on Space Requirements for Special Trade Passenger Ships, 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973; as modified by the protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL) 73/78) (Annex-I/II) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL) 73/78) (Annex-III) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL) 73/78) (Annex-IV) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL) 73/78) (Annex-V) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL) 73/78) (Annex-VI) International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 Operating Agreement on the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT), 1976 “Admiralty law” is generally synonymous with “maritime law,” although admiralty law is more correctly understood as a subset of maritime law. Admiralty law evolved as an amalgam of international common law and civil law or codes, decided by judges who would look to international practices and customs, as well as to the local civil law, to determine what standards to apply to maritime disputes. “Maritime law” includes not only admiralty law (maritime common law), but also maritime statutes and regulations enacted on a nation by-nation basis or based on international conventions. Over time, nations have tended to enact specific statutes to codify traditional admiralty law concepts, such as maritime liens and cargo claims, or to address other maritime matters that were not traditionally viewed as admiralty issues, such as vessel mortgages and marine insurance. More recently, most nations have implemented specific statutes regarding vessel construction standards, pollution prevention regulations, seafarer protection regulations, and similar laws. Much of the international maritime law is now based on international conventions developed under the auspices of the United Nations International Maritime Organization (IMO).