Is there a gay brain? The neuroscience of homosexuality

Is there a gay brain? The neuroscience of homosexuality

The neuroscience of homosexuality © 2016 Allen Institute for Brain Science. Allen Human Brain Atlas. Available from: human.brain-map.org Song: Mozart Symphony no. 29 in A minor- 4th Movement, St Cecelia symphony orchestra 2003 References Rahman, Q., Wilson, G. D., & Abrahams, S. (2004). Biosocial factors, sexual orientation and neurocognitive functioning. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(7), 867-881. Wilson, G., & Rahman, Q. (2005). Born gay: The psychobiology of sex orientation. Bao, A. M., & Swaab, D. F. (2011). Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, 32(2), 214-226. Ponseti, J., Bosinski, H. A., Wolff, S., Peller, M., Jansen, O., Mehdorn, H. M., ... & Siebner, H. R. (2006). A functional endophenotype for sexual orientation in humans. Neuroimage, 33(3), 825-833. LeVay, S. (1991). A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science, 253(5023), 1034. Rahman, Q. (2005). The neurodevelopment of human sexual orientation. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(7), 1057-1066. Paul, T., Schiffer, B., Zwarg, T., Krüger, T. H., Karama, S., Schedlowski, M., ... & Gizewski, E. R. (2008). Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual males. Human Brain Mapping, 29(6), 726-735. Berglund, H., Lindström, P., & Savic, I. (2006). Brain response to putative pheromones in lesbian women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(21), 8269-8274. Savic, I., & Lindström, P. (2008). PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo-and heterosexual subjects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(27), 9403-9408. Hu, S., Xu, D., Peterson, B., Wang, Q., He, X., Hu, J., ... & Zhou, W. (2013). Association of cerebral networks in resting state with sexual preference of homosexual men: a study of regional homogeneity and functional connectivity. PloS one, 8(3), e59426. Safron, A., Barch, B., Bailey, J. M., Gitelman, D. R., Parrish, T. B., & Reber, P. J. (2007). Neural correlates of sexual arousal in homosexual and heterosexual men. Behavioral neuroscience, 121(2), 237-248. Savic, I., Berglund, H., & Lindström, P. (2005). Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual men. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(20), 7356-7361. Kranz, F., & Ishai, A. (2006). Face perception is modulated by sexual preference. Current biology, 16(1), 63-68.

This is your brain on caffeine

This is your brain on caffeine

The psychopharmacology of caffeine and its effects on brain and behavior. Please, like, share, and subscribe! references © 2016 Allen Institute for Brain Science. Allen Human Brain Atlas. Available from: human.brain-map.org Fredholm, B. B., Bättig, K., Holmén, J., Nehlig, A., & Zvartau, E. E. (1999). Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacological reviews, 51(1), 83-133. Fredholm, B. B., Chen, J. F., Cunha, R. A., Svenningsson, P., & Vaugeois, J. M. (2005). Adenosine and brain function. International review of neurobiology, 63, 191-270. Juliano, L. M., & Griffiths, R. R. (2004). A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features. Psychopharmacology, 176(1), 1-29. Benowitz, N. L. (1990). Clinical pharmacology of caffeine. Annual review of medicine, 41(1), 277-288. Strain, E. C., Mumford, G. K., Silverman, K., & Griffiths, R. R. (1994). Caffeine dependence syndrome: evidence from case histories and experimental evaluations. Jama, 272(13), 1043-1048. Ferre S, von Euler G, Johansson B, Fredholm BB, Fuxe K (August 1991). "Stimulation of high-affinity adenosine A2 receptors decreases the affinity of dopamine D2 receptors in rat striatal membranes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (16): 7238–41. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopamine https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuromodulation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholine https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_receptor https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventrolateral_preoptic_nucleus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_forebrain http://www.e-importz.com/coffee-statistics.php http://www.coffeeassoc.com/media-coffee-facts/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caffeine Image references By BruceBlaus - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=47113848 By Rhodrijones93 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31832116 By OpenStax College - Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013., CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=30148141 Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1077233 By OpenStax - https://cnx.org/contents/FPtK1zmh@8.25:fEI3C8Ot@10/Preface, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=30147954 By Frontiers in Physiology - http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fphys.2014.00096/full, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31786784

The Neuroscience of Eating Disorders

The Neuroscience of Eating Disorders

A video outlining the neurobiology of the eating disorders Anorexia and Bulimia, Please like, share, and subscribe! © 2016 Allen Institute for Brain Science. Allen Human Brain Atlas. Available from: human.brain-map.org Thumbnail image By http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/obf_images/9b/6b/6943ad9f9143c9437d9ddc26f766.jpgGallery: http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/image/L0020548.html, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=49485329 References: Meczekalski, B., Podfigurna-Stopa, A., & Katulski, K. (2013). Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa. Maturitas, 75(3), 215-220. Kaye, W. (2008). Neurobiology of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Physiology & behavior, 94(1), 121-135. Kaye, W. H., Frank, G. K., Bailer, U. F., Henry, S. E., Meltzer, C. C., Price, J. C., ... & Wagner, A. (2005). Serotonin alterations in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: new insights from imaging studies. Physiology & behavior, 85(1), 73-81. Heaner, M. K., & Walsh, B. T. (2013). A history of the identification of the characteristic eating disturbances of Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa. Appetite, 65, 185-188. Connan, F., Campbell, I. C., Katzman, M., Lightman, S. L., & Treasure, J. (2003). A neurodevelopmental model for anorexia nervosa. Physiology & behavior, 79(1), 13-24. Avena, N. M., & Bocarsly, M. E. (2012). Dysregulation of brain reward systems in eating disorders: neurochemical information from animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Neuropharmacology, 63(1), 87-96. Uher, R., Murphy, T., Friederich, H. C., Dalgleish, T., Brammer, M. J., Giampietro, V., ... & Campbell, I. C. (2005). Functional neuroanatomy of body shape perception in healthy and eating-disordered women. Biological psychiatry, 58(12), 990-997. Santel, S., Baving, L., Krauel, K., Münte, T. F., & Rotte, M. (2006). Hunger and satiety in anorexia nervosa: fMRI during cognitive processing of food pictures. Brain research, 1114(1), 138-148. Pietrini, F., Castellini, G., Ricca, V., Polito, C., Pupi, A., & Faravelli, C. (2011). Functional neuroimaging in anorexia nervosa: a clinical approach. European Psychiatry, 26(3), 176-182. Mathes, W. F., Brownley, K. A., Mo, X., & Bulik, C. M. (2009). The biology of binge eating. Appetite, 52(3), 545-553. Friederich, H. C., Brooks, S., Uher, R., Campbell, I. C., Giampietro, V., Brammer, M., ... & Treasure, J. (2010). Neural correlates of body dissatisfaction in anorexia nervosa. Neuropsychologia, 48(10), 2878-2885. Gaudio, S., Wiemerslage, L., Brooks, S. J., & Schiöth, H. B. (2016). A systematic review of resting-state functional-MRI studies in anorexia nervosa: evidence for functional connectivity impairment in cognitive control and visuospatial and body-signal integration. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 578-589. Rikani, A. A., Choudhry, Z., Choudhry, A. M., Ikram, H., Asghar, M. W., Kajal, D., ... & Mobassarah, N. J. (2013). A critique of the literature on etiology of eating disorders. Annals of neurosciences, 20(4), 157.

What is neurogenesis?

What is neurogenesis?

References Ming, G. L., & Song, H. (2011). Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain: significant answers and significant questions. Neuron, 70(4), 687-702. Snyder, J. S., Hong, N. S., McDonald, R. J., & Wojtowicz, J. M. (2005). A role for adult neurogenesis in spatial long-term memory. Neuroscience, 130(4), 843-852. Zhao, C., Deng, W., & Gage, F. H. (2008). Mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis. Cell, 132(4), 645-660. Altman, J., & Das, G. D. (1965). Autoradiographic and histological evidence of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 124(3), 319-335. Clelland, C. D., Choi, M., Romberg, C., Clemenson, G. D., Fragniere, A., Tyers, P., ... & Bussey, T. J. (2009). A functional role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in spatial pattern separation. Science, 325(5937), 210-213. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adult_neurogenesis

How does the brain do math?

How does the brain do math?

A video on the neuroscience of mathematical ability. Please like, share and Subscribe! References: © 2016 Allen Institute for Brain Science. Allen Human Brain Atlas. Available from: human.brain-map.org Arsalidou, M., & Taylor, M. J. (2011). Is 2+ 2= 4? Meta-analyses of brain areas needed for numbers and calculations. Neuroimage, 54(3), 2382-2393. Dehaene, S., Molko, N., Cohen, L., & Wilson, A. J. (2004). Arithmetic and the brain. Current opinion in neurobiology, 14(2), 218-224. Amalric, M., & Dehaene, S. (2016). Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(18), 4909-4917. Hubbard, E. M., Piazza, M., Pinel, P., & Dehaene, S. (2005). Interactions between number and space in parietal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 435-448. Todd JJ, Marois R (2004). "Capacity limit of visual short-term memory in human posterior parietal cortex". Nature. 428 (6984): 751–754 Eger E, Sterzer P, Russ MO, Giraud AL, Kleinschmidt A: A supramodal number representation in human intraparietal cortex. Neuron 2003, 37:719-725. Duffau H, Denvil D, Lopes M, Gasparini F, Cohen L, Capelle L, Van Effenterre R: Intraoperative mapping of the cortical areas involved in multiplication and subtraction: an electrostimulation study in a patient with a left parietal glioma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002, 73:733-738. Pesenti M, Thioux M, Seron X, De Volder A: Neuroanatomical substrates of arabic number processing, numerical comparison, and simple addition: a PET study. J Cogn Neurosci 2000, 12:461-479. Zago L, Pesenti M, Mellet E, Crivello F, Mazoyer B, Tzourio-Mazoyer N: Neural correlates of simple and complex mental calculation. Neuroimage 2001, 13:314-327. Dehaene S, Piazza M, Pinel P, Cohen L: Three parietal circuits for number processing. Cogn Neuropsychol 2003, 20:487-506. McCandliss, B. D., Cohen, L., & Dehaene, S. (2003). The visual word form area: expertise for reading in the fusiform gyrus. Trends in cognitive sciences, 7(7), 293-299. Xu F, Spelke ES: Large number discrimination in 6-month-old infants. Cognition 2000, 74:B1-B11 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_cognition#Neuroimaging_and_neurophysiological_studies https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Working_memory https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefrontal_cortex https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferior_frontal_gyrus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angular_gyrus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supramarginal_gyrus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_cingulate_cortex https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intraparietal_sulcus

The complete guide to marijuana and the brain (2017)

The complete guide to marijuana and the brain (2017)

Reference list © 2010 Allen Institute for Brain Science. Allen Human Brain Atlas. Available from: human.brain-map.org Gardner, E. L. (2005). Endocannabinoid signaling system and brain reward: emphasis on dopamine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 81(2), 263-284. Filbey, F. M., Schacht, J. P., Myers, U. S., Chavez, R. S., & Hutchison, K. E. (2009). Marijuana craving in the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(31), 13016-13021. Lubman, D. I., Cheetham, A., & Yücel, M. (2015). Cannabis and adolescent brain development. Pharmacology & therapeutics, 148, 1-16. Batalla, A., Bhattacharyya, S., Yücel, M., Fusar-Poli, P., Crippa, J. A., Nogué, S., ... & Martin-Santos, R. (2013). Structural and functional imaging studies in chronic cannabis users: a systematic review of adolescent and adult findings. PloS one, 8(2), e55821. Lisdahl, K. M., Gilbart, E. R., Wright, N. E., & Shollenbarger, S. (2013). Dare to delay? The impacts of adolescent alcohol and marijuana use onset on cognition, brain structure, and function. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4. Campolongo, P., Roozendaal, B., Trezza, V., Hauer, D., Schelling, G., McGaugh, J. L., & Cuomo, V. (2009). Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(12), 4888-4893. Patel, S., Cravatt, B. F., & Hillard, C. J. (2005). Synergistic interactions between cannabinoids and environmental stress in the activation of the central amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(3), 497-507. Phan, K. L., Angstadt, M., Golden, J., Onyewuenyi, I., Popovska, A., & De Wit, H. (2008). Cannabinoid modulation of amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(10), 2313-2319. Chhatwal, J. P., Davis, M., Maguschak, K. A., & Ressler, K. J. (2005). Enhancing cannabinoid neurotransmission augments the extinction of conditioned fear. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(3), 516-524. Tan, H., Lauzon, N. M., Bishop, S. F., Bechard, M. A., & Laviolette, S. R. (2009). Integrated cannabinoid CB1 receptor transmission within the amygdala–prefrontal cortical pathway modulates neuronal plasticity and emotional memory encoding. Cerebral cortex, 20(6), 1486-1496. Broyd, S. J., van Hell, H. H., Beale, C., Yücel, M., & Solowij, N. (2016). Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on human cognition—a systematic review. Biological psychiatry, 79(7), 557-567. Gonzalez, R. (2007). Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on brain functioning and neuropsychological performance. Neuropsychology review, 17(3), 347-361. Weiland, B. J., Thayer, R. E., Depue, B. E., Sabbineni, A., Bryan, A. D., & Hutchison, K. E. (2015). Daily marijuana use is not associated with brain morphometric measures in adolescents or adults. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(4), 1505-1512. Sami, M. B., Rabiner, E. A., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). Does cannabis affect dopaminergic signaling in the human brain? A systematic review of evidence to date. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(8), 1201-1224. Orr, J. M., Paschall, C. J., & Banich, M. T. (2016). Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry. NeuroImage: Clinical, 12, 47-56. Yücel, M., Solowij, N., Respondek, C., Whittle, S., Fornito, A., Pantelis, C., & Lubman, D. I. (2008). Regional brain abnormalities associated with long-term heavy cannabis use. Archives of general psychiatry, 65(6), 694-701. Battistella, G., Fornari, E., Annoni, J. M., Chtioui, H., Dao, K., Fabritius, M., ... & Giroud, C. (2014). Long-term effects of cannabis on brain structure. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(9), 2041-2048. Lorenzetti, V., Solowij, N., Fornito, A., Ian Lubman, D., & Yucel, M. (2014). The association between regular cannabis exposure and alterations of human brain morphology: an updated review of the literature. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20(13), 2138-2167. Crean, R. D., Crane, N. A., & Mason, B. J. (2011). An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions. Journal of addiction medicine, 5(1), 1. Hanson, K. L., Winward, J. L., Schweinsburg, A. D., Medina, K. L., Brown, S. A., & Tapert, S. F. (2010). Longitudinal study of cognition among adolescent marijuana users over three weeks of abstinence. Addictive behaviors, 35(11), 970-976. Han, J., Kesner, P., Metna-Laurent, M., Duan, T., Xu, L., Georges, F., ... & Liu, Q. (2012). Acute cannabinoids impair working memory through astroglial CB 1 receptor modulation of hippocampal LTD. Cell, 148(5), 1039-1050. Solowij, N., & Battisti, R. (2008). The chronic effects of cannabis on memory in humans: a review. Current drug abuse reviews, 1(1), 81-98. G Bossong, M., Jager, G., Bhattacharyya, S., & Allen, P. (2014). Rest of list wouldn't fit

How do we know what things are?

How do we know what things are?

A video about the neuroanatomical and computational basis for human object recognition. References: Kravitz, D. J., Saleem, K. S., Baker, C. I., Ungerleider, L. G., & Mishkin, M. (2013). The ventral visual pathway: an expanded neural framework for the processing of object quality. Trends in cognitive sciences, 17(1), 26-49. DiCarlo, J. J., Zoccolan, D., & Rust, N. C. (2012). How does the brain solve visual object recognition?. Neuron, 73(3), 415-434. Riesenhuber, M., & Poggio, T. (1999). Hierarchical models of object recognition in cortex. Nature neuroscience, 2(11), 1019-1025. Bar, M. (2003). A cortical mechanism for triggering top-down facilitation in visual object recognition. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 15(4), 600-609. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neocortex https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-streams_hypothesis#Ventral_stream https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_system

How do we know where we are going?

How do we know where we are going?

References Taube, J. S. (2007). The head direction signal: origins and sensory-motor integration. Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 30, 181-207. Poucet, B., Lenck-Santini, P. P., Paz-Villagrán, V., & Save, E. (2003). Place cells, neocortex and spatial navigation: a short review. Journal of Physiology-Paris, 97(4), 537-546. Maguire, E. A., Burgess, N., Donnett, J. G., Frackowiak, R. S., Frith, C. D., & O'Keefe, J. (1998). Knowing where and getting there: a human navigation network. Science, 280(5365), 921-924. Moser, E. I., Kropff, E., & Moser, M. B. (2008). Place cells, grid cells, and the brain's spatial representation system. Neuroscience, 31(1), 69. Spiers, H. J., & Maguire, E. A. (2006). Thoughts, behaviour, and brain dynamics during navigation in the real world. Neuroimage, 31(4), 1826-1840. Chrastil, E. R. (2013). Neural evidence supports a novel framework for spatial navigation. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 20(2), 208-227. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_cell https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_cell https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_direction_cells https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampus

Long term effects of ADHD medication in children

Long term effects of ADHD medication in children

A review of the psychological and neuroscientific literature on the effects of taking stimulant medication for ADHD in children. References (partial) Castellanos, F. X., & Proal, E. (2012). Large-scale brain systems in ADHD: beyond the prefrontal–striatal model. Trends in cognitive sciences, 16(1), 17-26. Wilens, T. E., Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., & Gunawardene, S. (2003). Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature. Pediatrics, 111(1), 179-185. Castellanos, F. X., Lee, P. P., Sharp, W., Jeffries, N. O., Greenstein, D. K., Clasen, L. S., ... & Zijdenbos, A. (2002). Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Jama, 288(14), 1740-1748. Wilens, T. E., & Spencer, T. J. (2010). Understanding attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from childhood to adulthood. Postgraduate medicine, 122(5), 97-109. van Ewijk, H., Heslenfeld, D. J., Zwiers, M. P., Buitelaar, J. K., & Oosterlaan, J. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(4), 1093-1106. Grund, T., Lehmann, K., Bock, N., Rothenberger, A., & Teuchert-Noodt, G. (2006). Influence of methylphenidate on brain development–an update of recent animal experiments. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2(1), 2. Schweren, L. J., de Zeeuw, P., & Durston, S. (2013). MR imaging of the effects of methylphenidate on brain structure and function in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 23(10), 1151-1164. Areas of the Brain Modulated by Single-Dose Methylphenidate Treatment in Youth with ADHD During Task-Based fMRI: A Systematic Review Effect of Psychostimulants on Brain Structure and Function in ADHD: A Qualitative Literature Review of MRI-Based Neuroimaging Studies

Why are we afraid of things?

Why are we afraid of things?

A video about the neurobiology of fear. References and links: Thumbnail http://reallifeglobal.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/FEAR.jpg?467a33 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amygdala https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superior_colliculus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulvinar_nuclei https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synaptic_plasticity Arnsten, A. F. (2000). Stress impairs prefrontal cortical function in rats and monkeys: role of dopamine D1 and norepinephrine α-1 receptor mechanisms. Progress in brain research, 126, 183-192. Silverstein, D. N., & Ingvar, M. (2015). A multi-pathway hypothesis for human visual fear signaling. Frontiers in systems neuroscience, 9. Gross, C. T., & Canteras, N. S. (2012). The many paths to fear. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(9), 651-658. Méndez-Bértolo, C., Moratti, S., Toledano, R., Lopez-Sosa, F., Martínez-Alvarez, R., Mah, Y. H., ... & Strange, B. A. (2016). A fast pathway for fear in human amygdala. Nature neuroscience, 19(8), 1041-1049. Öhman, A., & Mineka, S. (2001). Fears, phobias, and preparedness: toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological review, 108(3), 483.

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