The complete guide to marijuana and the brain (2017)

The complete guide to marijuana and the brain (2017)

Reference list © 2010 Allen Institute for Brain Science. Allen Human Brain Atlas. Available from: human.brain-map.org Gardner, E. L. (2005). Endocannabinoid signaling system and brain reward: emphasis on dopamine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 81(2), 263-284. Filbey, F. M., Schacht, J. P., Myers, U. S., Chavez, R. S., & Hutchison, K. E. (2009). Marijuana craving in the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(31), 13016-13021. Lubman, D. I., Cheetham, A., & Yücel, M. (2015). Cannabis and adolescent brain development. Pharmacology & therapeutics, 148, 1-16. Batalla, A., Bhattacharyya, S., Yücel, M., Fusar-Poli, P., Crippa, J. A., Nogué, S., ... & Martin-Santos, R. (2013). Structural and functional imaging studies in chronic cannabis users: a systematic review of adolescent and adult findings. PloS one, 8(2), e55821. Lisdahl, K. M., Gilbart, E. R., Wright, N. E., & Shollenbarger, S. (2013). Dare to delay? The impacts of adolescent alcohol and marijuana use onset on cognition, brain structure, and function. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4. Campolongo, P., Roozendaal, B., Trezza, V., Hauer, D., Schelling, G., McGaugh, J. L., & Cuomo, V. (2009). Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(12), 4888-4893. Patel, S., Cravatt, B. F., & Hillard, C. J. (2005). Synergistic interactions between cannabinoids and environmental stress in the activation of the central amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(3), 497-507. Phan, K. L., Angstadt, M., Golden, J., Onyewuenyi, I., Popovska, A., & De Wit, H. (2008). Cannabinoid modulation of amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(10), 2313-2319. Chhatwal, J. P., Davis, M., Maguschak, K. A., & Ressler, K. J. (2005). Enhancing cannabinoid neurotransmission augments the extinction of conditioned fear. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(3), 516-524. Tan, H., Lauzon, N. M., Bishop, S. F., Bechard, M. A., & Laviolette, S. R. (2009). Integrated cannabinoid CB1 receptor transmission within the amygdala–prefrontal cortical pathway modulates neuronal plasticity and emotional memory encoding. Cerebral cortex, 20(6), 1486-1496. Broyd, S. J., van Hell, H. H., Beale, C., Yücel, M., & Solowij, N. (2016). Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on human cognition—a systematic review. Biological psychiatry, 79(7), 557-567. Gonzalez, R. (2007). Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on brain functioning and neuropsychological performance. Neuropsychology review, 17(3), 347-361. Weiland, B. J., Thayer, R. E., Depue, B. E., Sabbineni, A., Bryan, A. D., & Hutchison, K. E. (2015). Daily marijuana use is not associated with brain morphometric measures in adolescents or adults. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(4), 1505-1512. Sami, M. B., Rabiner, E. A., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). Does cannabis affect dopaminergic signaling in the human brain? A systematic review of evidence to date. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(8), 1201-1224. Orr, J. M., Paschall, C. J., & Banich, M. T. (2016). Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry. NeuroImage: Clinical, 12, 47-56. Yücel, M., Solowij, N., Respondek, C., Whittle, S., Fornito, A., Pantelis, C., & Lubman, D. I. (2008). Regional brain abnormalities associated with long-term heavy cannabis use. Archives of general psychiatry, 65(6), 694-701. Battistella, G., Fornari, E., Annoni, J. M., Chtioui, H., Dao, K., Fabritius, M., ... & Giroud, C. (2014). Long-term effects of cannabis on brain structure. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(9), 2041-2048. Lorenzetti, V., Solowij, N., Fornito, A., Ian Lubman, D., & Yucel, M. (2014). The association between regular cannabis exposure and alterations of human brain morphology: an updated review of the literature. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20(13), 2138-2167. Crean, R. D., Crane, N. A., & Mason, B. J. (2011). An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions. Journal of addiction medicine, 5(1), 1. Hanson, K. L., Winward, J. L., Schweinsburg, A. D., Medina, K. L., Brown, S. A., & Tapert, S. F. (2010). Longitudinal study of cognition among adolescent marijuana users over three weeks of abstinence. Addictive behaviors, 35(11), 970-976. Han, J., Kesner, P., Metna-Laurent, M., Duan, T., Xu, L., Georges, F., ... & Liu, Q. (2012). Acute cannabinoids impair working memory through astroglial CB 1 receptor modulation of hippocampal LTD. Cell, 148(5), 1039-1050. Solowij, N., & Battisti, R. (2008). The chronic effects of cannabis on memory in humans: a review. Current drug abuse reviews, 1(1), 81-98. G Bossong, M., Jager, G., Bhattacharyya, S., & Allen, P. (2014). Rest of list wouldn't fit

Visualization of the endocannabinoid signaling system.

Visualization of the endocannabinoid signaling system.

Visualization of the endocannabinoid signaling system. A Master's Research Project submitted fo Masters of Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto. Developed in collaboration with Biomedical Communications, Department of Biology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, The Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids and with funding provided in part by the Quebec Pain Research Network. Copyright Leanne Chan 2011

Your brain hallucinates your conscious reality | Anil Seth

Your brain hallucinates your conscious reality | Anil Seth

Right now, billions of neurons in your brain are working together to generate a conscious experience -- and not just any conscious experience, your experience of the world around you and of yourself within it. How does this happen? According to neuroscientist Anil Seth, we're all hallucinating all the time; when we agree about our hallucinations, we call it "reality." Join Seth for a delightfully disorienting talk that may leave you questioning the very nature of your existence. Check out more TED talks: http://www.ted.com The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. Follow TED on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: https://www.youtube.com/TED

Brain Reward: Understanding How the Brain Responds to Natural Rewards and Drugs of Abuse

Brain Reward: Understanding How the Brain Responds to Natural Rewards and Drugs of Abuse

The Inside Story of Cannabidiol - What are the Benefits of CBD?

The Inside Story of Cannabidiol - What are the Benefits of CBD?

http://CBDtheInsideStory.com What is CBD oil? What are the benefits of CBD? How does CBD work? This is The Inside Story of Cannabidiol about the benefits and physiological effects of CBD on the human body. A couple of years ago a remarkable thing happened when CBD oil became legal in all 50 states. If you remove CBD from the THC coming from the cannabis plant or the hemp plant, CBD oil is now legal to use as a nutritional supplement. Since that time of course, the market for cannabis oil has exploded with interest. Truly, CBD is not just another nutritional supplement. This short conversation is going to describe the intense scientific research that is going on around the world on the benefits of CBD, or cannabidiol, and why it is so important for human physiology. In our actual physiology where does CBD work? We are going to travel into our physiology. Right into our central nervous system. We are going to see at the level of individual cells that the cell surface is covered with these green receptors. These are receptors for CBD. When the CBD binds to that receptor it sends a message into the cell which travels all the way down into the nucleus of the cell where the intelligence of our entire physiology is contained in our chromosomes. Here a chromosome will unwind and you are going to see the DNA that contains the codes for everything that our body does. This is like the software that runs our physiology. Genes are the codes for every protein that our bodies make. Including all the signaling molecules that run our physiology. Such as our neurotransmitters that run our nervous system. Our hormones that run our endocrine system and our cytokines that run our immune system. So we see that throughout our physiology we have receptors specifically designed to bind with cannabidiol and CBD has its effect on the nucleus of our cells where proteins are being made. Cannabidiol modulates the transcription of over 1100 genes that make the signaling molecules that naturally reduce inflammation in our central nervous system and throughout our immune system. Restoring homeostasis to both our immune and central nervous systems. Bottom line… One of the benefits of cannabidiol is that it causes a cascade of Homeostasis through our entire central nervous system and our entire immune system. Why is this happening? As I mentioned before we have receptors in our body for CBD. This is called the endo-cannabinoid system. Back in medical school we didn’t’t even know about the endo-cannabinoid system. It was discovered in the 1990’s by Dr. Rafael Mechoulan from the Hebrew University in Israel. So the endo-cannabinoid system is a network of cells throughout our body that have receptors for CBD. In fact, there are more receptors for CBD in our body than any other kind of receptor. So the endo-cannabinoid system is truly the largest network of its kind throughout our entire physiology. Among other things Dr. Mechoulam also discovered that we make our own cannabinoids in or body. This is Anandamide and 2AG. Those two are natural cannabinoids that our bodies make and bind to our CBD receptors. Our bodies are filled with CBD receptors. What kind of symptoms what kind of stress do all these things cause to us? If your immune system is inflamed you might be suffering from autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, inflamed bowel disease, lupus and thyroid. Or fibromyalgia or even multiple sclerosis. And you skin, psoriasis and eczema and all sorts of other chronic infections. Do you realize that many of things didn’t even exist 100 or 150 years ago. Incidences of these sorts of diseases is growing throughout the last century. Now lets take a look at your central nervous system. If it is inflamed what types of things might you be suffering from? Brain fog, migraines, epilepsy, anxiety and PTSD, ADD, ADHD, autism and insomnia. Again, 100 or 150 years ago these kinds of symptoms, these kind of diseases where rare. If you are suffering from any of these conditions, any of these symptoms, CBD might provide you with tremendous healing, tremendous relief, right through your own natural endo-cannabinoid system that brings homeostasis both to your immune system and to your central nervous system. In conclusion, what have we learned from this conversation? That health is achieved through physiological homeostasis right through our natural endo-cannabinoid systems. Therefore, CBD is an indispensable catalyst for optimal health. http://ashermilgrom.primemybody.com

Kings of Cannabis (Full Length Documentary)

Kings of Cannabis (Full Length Documentary)

Meet the Martha Stewart of Marijuana: http://bit.ly/2gTh2PQ Check out other videos from Weediquette here: http://bit.ly/1iVLbL7 You might not know who Arjan Roskam is, but you've probably smoked his weed. Arjan's been breeding some of the most famous marijuana strains in the world—like White Widow, Super Silver Haze, and many others—for over 20 years. In 1992 he opened his first coffee shop in Amsterdam and has since crafted his marijuana-breeding skills into a market-savvy empire known as Green House Seed Company, which rakes in millions of dollars a year. He's won 38 Cannabis Cups and has dubbed himself the King of Cannabis. VICE joins Arjan and his crew of strain hunters in Colombia to look for three of the country's rarest types of weed, strains that have remained genetically pure for decades. In grower's terms, these are called landraces. We trudge up mountains and crisscross military checkpoints in the country's still-violent south, and then head north to the breathtaking Caribbean coast. As the dominoes of criminalization fall throughout the world, Arjan is positioned to be at the forefront of the legitimate international seed trade. "Black Mamba" Performed by Cut Hands Written and produced by William Bennett Courtesy of Susan Lawly Used with permission "Nine-Night" Performed by Cut Hands Written and produced by William Bennett Courtesy of Susan Lawly Used with permission Check out the Best of VICE here: http://bit.ly/VICE-Best-Of Subscribe to VICE here! http://bit.ly/Subscribe-to-VICE Check out our full video catalog: http://bit.ly/VICE-Videos Videos, daily editorial and more: http://vice.com Like VICE on Facebook: http://fb.com/vice Follow VICE on Twitter: http://twitter.com/vice Read our tumblr: http://vicemag.tumblr.com

Is Marijuana Unhealthy? An In-Depth Look at the Research

Is Marijuana Unhealthy? An In-Depth Look at the Research

This video reviews over 20 studies on the topic to determine which myths and claims about its harms and benefits are valid. - Links and Sources - https://www.patreon.com/micthevegan https://www.facebook.com/micthevegan https://www.instagram.com/micthevegan - @micthevegan https://plantspace.org TIY Tiny House Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYhthOBh4_459pAge62at8g DEA schedule 1: https://www.dea.gov/druginfo/ds.shtml NIH write-up on the topic: http://tinyurl.com/q3fyhqh Lung Cancer Main Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4262725/pdf/nihms607200.pdf Wood Stoves and Lung cancer: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002194/pdf/ehp-118-1743.pdf Heavy Users 2 fold risk lung cancer study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23846283 Heavy Users 5.7 fold lung cancer risk study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2516340/pdf/ukmss-2178.pdf Estimate of Average Cigs Per day: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1117323/ Smoke Danger Comparison Study (Also anti-cancer quote): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1277837/pdf/1477-7517-2-21.pdf Vaporization Reduces Cig Toxins: http://annals.org/aim/article/2599869/nicotine-carcinogen-toxin-exposure-long-term-e-cigarette-nicotine-replacement 108/111 other compounds removed in vapor: http://www.canorml.org/healthfacts/jcantgieringervapor.pdf Mental Illness Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341491/pdf/S0033291716003172a.pdf "acutely raises dopamine levels in the striatum." Study 2014: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584613002340?via%3Dihub Dopamine increase in subjects: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4816196/pdf/emss-66024.pdf Deficit in striatal dopamine release Study 2016: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v22/n1/full/mp201621a.html?foxtrotcallback=true" Dopamine process alternations in young starters: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3314125/pdf/nihms346717.pdf 9% Addiction Rate Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/21145178/ CDC Alcohol Deaths: https://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/alcohol-use.htm" CDC Alcohol Poisoning: https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/alcohol-poisoning-deaths/index.html French Study on Traffic Accidents: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15389580701737561?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=gcpi20 No Increased Accidents Under the Influence: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893634/pdf/jsad56.pdf Drunk driving = nearly 1/3 of all traffic deaths. https://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/impaired_driving/impaired-drv_factsheet.html 1 in 4 traffic deaths is now due to cell phones: http://www.nsc.org/NewsDocuments/2014-Press-Release-Archive/3-25-2014-Injury-Facts-release.pdf Violence from Alcohol: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.486.6496&rep=rep1&type=pdf IQ Adolescents Use Study: http://www.pnas.org/content/109/40/E2657.full.pdf Alcohol Damages but doesn't kill brain cells: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2796092/ Infant Risks and Breast Milk: http://tinyurl.com/oq48hpz Reduction in Childhood Seizures Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24237632/ Featured Video about Seizures: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmlpoX5EGU0 Featured Video about Parkinson's: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zNT8Zo_sfwo Parkinson's Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5436333/pdf/can.2017.0002.pdf PSTD Study Underway: http://tinyurl.com/zsuaxz5 STD Risk Increased: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4827335/pdf/nihms762992.pdf

Marijuana: Heavy Users Risk Changes to Brain

Marijuana: Heavy Users Risk Changes to Brain

A new study finds that heavy marijuana use by adults could have long-term effects on the brain. What kinds of effects? WSJ's Jason Bellini has #TheShortAnswer. Subscribe to the WSJ channel here: http://bit.ly/14Q81Xy Visit the WSJ channel for more video: https://www.youtube.com/wsjdigitalnetwork More from the Wall Street Journal: Visit WSJ.com: http://online.wsj.com/home-page Follow WSJ on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/wsjlive Follow WSJ on Google+: https://plus.google.com/+wsj/posts Follow WSJ on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WSJLive Follow WSJ on Instagram: http://instagram.com/wsj Follow WSJ on Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/wsj/ Follow WSJ on Tumblr: http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/wall-street-journal

NIDA's Dr. Nora Volkow Discusses Marijuana's Effects on the Brain, Body & Behavior

NIDA's Dr. Nora Volkow Discusses Marijuana's Effects on the Brain, Body & Behavior

Hear a fascinating presentation by Dr. Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, about the effects of marijuana use on the brain, body and behavior. Dr. Volkow's remarks were given on Feb. 4th at CADCA's 24th National Leadership Forum.

Long-term marijuana use can lead to brain damage, study shows

Long-term marijuana use can lead to brain damage, study shows

New research suggests that marijuana use can deteriorate the part of the brain responsible for decision-making. Dr. David Agus joins "CBS This Morning" from Los Angeles to discuss the study.

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