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The 1257 Samalas eruption was a major volcanic eruption of the Samalas volcano, next to Mount Rinjani on the island of Lombok, Indonesia. It left a large caldera next to Rinjani volcano, the lake Segara Anak. This volcanic eruption reached a volcanic explosivity index of 7, making it one of the largest eruptions of the Holocene. The occurrence of this eruption was originally deduced from ice core information revealing a spike in sulfate deposition around the year 1257; in 2013 the source of this eruption at Samalas was definitively proven as a result of historical records from that time. This eruption proceeded during four distinct phases, alternately creating eruption columns reaching up for tens of kilometres and pyroclastic flows that buried large parts of Lombok, destroying human habitations including the city of Pamatan. Ash from the eruption fell as far as Java. The volume of the deposits left exceeds 10 km3. Later activity from the volcano created additional volcanic centres i... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:02:11: General geology 00:05:09: Eruption 00:11:48: Research history 00:15:09: Climate effects 00:22:29: Lombok Kingdom (Indonesia) 00:23:19: Europe 00:25:11: Byzantine empire (Eastern Roman empire) ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1257_Samalas_eruption
Antigua, Guatemala is a city in the central highlands of Guatemala famous for its well-preserved Spanish Baroque-influenced architecture as well as a number of ruins of colonial churches. It served as the capital of the Kingdom of Guatemala. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Built 1,500 m above sea-level, in an earthquake-prone region, it was largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1773 but its principal monuments are still preserved as ruins. In the space of under three centuries the city, which was built on a grid pattern inspired by the Italian Renaissance, acquired a number of superb monuments. Three large volcanoes dominate the horizon around Antigua. The most commanding, to the south of the city, is the Volcán de Agua or "Volcano of Water", some 3,766 metres (12,356 ft) high. When the Spanish arrived, the inhabitants of the zone, Kakchikel Mayas, called it Hunapú (and they still do). However, it became known as Volcán de Agua after a lahar from the volcano buried the second site of the capital, which prompted the Spanish authorities to move the capital to present-day Antigua. The original site of the 2nd capital is now the village San Miguel Escobar. To the west of the city are a pair of peaks, Acatenango, which last erupted in 1972, some 3,976 metres (13,045 ft) high, and the Volcán de Fuego or "Volcano of Fire", some 3,763 metres (12,346 ft) high. "Fuego" is famous for being almost constantly active at a low level. Steam and gas issue from its top daily, a larger eruption occurred in September 2012. Pacaya is an active complex volcano in Guatemala, which first erupted approximately 23,000 years ago and has erupted at least 23 times since the Spanish invasion of Guatemala. Pacaya rises to an elevation of 2,552 metres (8,373 ft). After being dormant for a century, it erupted violently in 1965 and has been erupting continuously since then. Much of its activity is Strombolian, but occasional Plinian eruptions also occur, sometimes showering the area of the nearby Departments with ash.
Heavy rains hampered search teams on Sunday in the hills of western Indonesia where hundreds of people were feared buried alive in landslides triggered by a massive earthquake that wiped out four villages. Officials said at least 644 people were buried and presumed dead in the hillside villages in Padang Pariaman district on the western coast of Sumatra island. Entire hillsides in Pariaman were shaken loose sending down a cascade of mud rocks and trees. Hordes of aid workers military personnel police and volunteers carrying heavy earth-moving equipment finally arrived on Sunday to relieve residents and volunteers who had been digging for corpses with their bare hands. Authorities said there was little hope of finding anyone alive. Only mud and broken palm trees were visible where the four villages once stood in Pariaman - the mountainsides appeared gouged bare as if by a gigantic digger. Rustam Pakaya the head of Indonesia s Health Ministry crisis centre said the villages were sucked 30 metres 100 feet deep into the earth. Dasril a volunteer in Lubuk Lawe village one of the hardest hit said relatives were relying on our good intention to find these people. Nearby 63-year-old village resident Buyung Satu said he had been looking for five of his relatives buried in their house by the landslide. I heard the news that my relatives were buried in their own house. It was a devastating news he said. Search and rescue operations were also underway in Jumanak village where some 200-300 wedding guests at a restaurant were buried alive including the bride her 15-year-old brother officials said. The adjacent villages of Pulau Aiya and Limo Koto Timur were also swept away. By mid-afternoon on Sunday a heavy downpour lashed the area raising fears of a fresh landslide. The police ordered everybody to evacuate. The villages were accessible only by foot as landslides cut off all roads. An AP team reached Jumanak after walking about four miles six kilometres for one-and-a-half hours. There is no clear word on the total death toll from Wednesday s 7.6-magnitude quake. The United Nations put the toll at 1100. The government earlier said 715 were dead and 3000 missing but it revised the figure on Sunday to say 603 people are confirmed dead and 960 missing presumed dead. The missing include the people buried in the landslides. Elsewhere aid and rescue efforts have been concentrated in the region s capital Padang a coastal city of 900-thousand people where several tall buildings collapsed and hundreds died. According to the National Disaster Management Agency 83712 houses 200 public buildings and 285 schools were destroyed. Another 100-thousand buildings and 20 miles 31 kilometres of road were badly damaged and five bridges collapsed. Aid deliveries came on C-130 cargo planes from the United States Russia and Australia. Japanese Swiss South Korean and Malaysian search and rescue teams scoured the debris. Tens of m millions of dollars in
Lava from a volcano on Hawaii's Big Island has been spewing out of a newly formed opening. The Kilauea volcano is one of the most active in the world, and has been erupting non-stop for 32 years.
These are the 10 top most powerful super volcanoes in the world they might be that things that destroy our planet & end everything! The real difficulty about volcanism is not to see how it can start, but how it can stop. They are ticking time bombs that can alter the shape of the world . welcome again ! Hope you all are having an amazing day , today we are counting down to the world's most deadliest volcanoes . we've gone through what might make a volcano dangerous and how we tried to rank dangerous volcanoes, developing a points system based on population, magma type, volcano type, and past large explosive eruptions . At no. 10 10. Santa Maria, Guatemala (1.25 million/6.2 million): This volcano might be best known for its most active vent, Santiaguito. It has the tendency to erupt explosively withVEI 6 eruption as recently as 1902. 9. Taal, Philippines (2.38 million/24.8 million): Taal is a lake-filled caldera that produced four VEI 4 eruptions in the last 200 years and a VEI 6 eruption only ~5,500 years ago (VEI stands for Volcanic Explosivity Index, and it tops out at 7). 8. Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador (1.2 million/6.5 million): Coatepequeis the first "dark horse" in the top 10. It gains points for erupting rhyolite and dacite, both magmas prone to large, explosive eruptions. It is also centrally-located in El Salvador, so a large eruption would likely impact the capital of San Salvador along with the city of Santa Ana. 7. Corbetti Caldera, Ethiopia (1.2 million/9.8 million): Now, this is a real under-the-radar volcano. TheCorbetti caldera lies within an even older caldera and has produced pyroclastic cones (explosive eruptions of lots of volcanic debris) and obsidian flows, meaning it has the right style of eruption and right composition to potentially experience a big explosive eruption. Not much is known about the Corbetti Caldera, so it is hard to constrain its recent activity. However, it is close enough to Addis Ababa that a large ash-rich eruption might cause quite a humanitarian crisis. 6. Tatun Group, Taiwan (6.7 million/9.8 million): Much like the Corbetti Caldera, Tatun is not a well-known volcano in a country most people don't associate with volcanism. However, as I wrote about recently, the Tatun Group has all the signs of a volcano that is still potentially active. It is also nestled close to Taipei, so you could imagine an eruption that produced another andesite dome could wreak havoc on the city, mainly from ash fall or mudflows. 5. Vesuvius, Italy (3.9 million/6.0 million): Did you really thinkVesuvius wouldn't be in the top five? The volcano is one of the most dangerous on Earth thanks to its numerous explosive eruptions---and the city of Naples, which is slowly crawling up its flanks. 4. Ilopango, El Salvador (2.9 million/6.7 million): This is another caldera in El Salvador. But unlike Coatepeque, it has erupted in the last 200 years (1880 to be exact). Around 450 CE, Ilopango had a VEI 6 eruption that covered much of El Salvador with ash and brought down Mayan cities across the region. 3. Aira Caldera, Japan (0.9 million/2.6 million): The population around the Aira caldera might be lower than most of the top 10 volcanoes, but its frequent eruptions (from Sakurajima) and history of large eruptions means it poses a large danger to those 2.6 million people within 100 kilometers. 2. Michoacan-Guanajuato, Mexico (5.8 million/5.8 million): Here's the thing about the Michoacan-Guanajuato (M-G) volcanic field: All three population radius values are the same: 5.8 million. Yes, almost 6 million people live within 5 kilometers of this volcanic field that has produced pyroclastic cones generated by explosive eruptions. 1. Campi Flegrei, Italy (3.0 million/6.0 million): If you're the sort of person who wants to worry about Yellowstone, maybe you should turn your attention to theCampi Flegrei instead. Not only is it a restless caldera with a more recent history of very large explosive eruptions, Now, this ranking is highly subjective. There can be a multitude of ways to measure danger, so I'm sure people will disagree with this list. Volcanoes like Etna, Cotopaxi, Ruiz, Fuego, and more didn't make the top 20---mostly because we chose to put emphasis on the style and composition of magmatism. So that brings this video to an end , if you enjoy this video do give this a big thumps up and comment down below your views and what would you like to see next , effort would be much appreciated . subscribe for more such videos . thanks for watching !
Thousands of people living close to a volcano in Indonesia have been forced to flee their homes after it began erupting violently. Mount Sinabung, on the island of Sumatra, became active again in 2010 but there has been more rrecent activity this month. At least 3,000 people living near its slopes have had to leave, including 1,200 on Monday alone. On Monday, there were at least 28 surges of hot ash that rush down the side of the mountain at high speed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-33139538#sa-ns_mchannel=rss&ns_source=PublicRSS20-sa http://www.wochit.com This video was produced by Wochit using http://wochit.com
There was a big flood in Indonesia cause I just moved to Indonesia and this happend so if u enjoyed this vedio subscribes my channel and probably I will make a gaming vedio with my real voice
Apocalyptic skies return above Chile after second volcano erupts and entire landscape is bathed in blood red More astonishing images of a volcanic eruption have emerged from Chile, this time from Villarrica in southern Chile Villarrica, located around 460 miles south of the capital Santiago, is among the most active in South America Britain's Met Office said that the clouds wrapped around the volcano are lenticular clouds, often mistaken for UFOs. More astonishing, apocalyptic images of a volcanic eruption have emerged from Chile, this time from Villarrica in the south of the country. A band of cloud had wrapped itself around the peak as lava spewed into the air, giving the entire landscape an eerie blood-red glow. Villarrica, located near the popular tourist resort of Pucon around 750 km (460 miles) south of the capital Santiago, is among the most active in South America. On March 3 a short-lived eruption of ash and rock led to the evacuation of thousands from the nearby area. Britain's Met Office told MailOnline that the clouds wrapped around the volcano are lenticular clouds, which are formed, it said, when the air is stable and winds blow from the same or similar direction at many levels of the troposphere. It said: 'As the wind blows across hilly or mountainous regions, the air undulates in a downstream train of waves. If there is enough moisture in the air, these waves will condense to form the unique appearance of lenticular clouds. The clouds can be seen as far as 60 miles downwind of the hills or mountains that led to their formation and they are believed to be one of the most common explanations for UFO sightings across the world.' n late April Chile's Calbuco volcano erupted, releasing a large column of smoke in a towering arc, just over a week after it spectacularly roared to life following half a century of inactivity. 'As predicted, the third eruptive pulse at the Calbuco volcano has arrived. Red alert,' the National Geology and Mines Service wrote on its official Twitter account at the time. A large plume of dark gray smoke and ash rose from the crater, prompting authorities to evacuate a 20-kilometer (12-mile) radius around the volcano, where workers and residents had been granted limited access to begin the clean-up effort. 'All of a sudden they ordered us to evacuate again so we left in our cars. But it was calmer than last time,' said Horacio Camano, a resident of La Ensenada, a town of 1,500 people at the foot of the volcano. TV images showed thousands of people rushing to schools to pick up their children or lining up at gas stations to fill up their cars in the cities closest to the volcano, Puerto Montt and Puerto Varas.