Europeans and North Americans are responsible for 97 percent of scientific accomplishment

Europeans and North Americans are responsible for 97 percent of scientific accomplishment

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Accomplishment In the 2003 book, Human Accomplishment: Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 BC to 1950, Charles Murray, most widely known as the co-author of The Bell Curve, argued that the great artistic and scientific accomplishments were overwhelmingly European. ”What the human species is today,” he wrote, “it owes in astonishing degree to what was accomplished in just half a dozen centuries by the peoples of one small portion of the northwestern Eurasian land mass.” Murray ranks the leading 4,000 innovators in several fields of human accomplishment from 800 BC to 1950. Surveying outstanding contributions to the arts and sciences from ancient times to the mid-twentieth century, Murray attempts to quantify and explain human accomplishment worldwide in the fields of arts and sciences by calculating the amount of space allocated to them in reference works, an area of research sometimes referred to as historiometry. Murray did this by calculating the amount of space allocated to these individuals in reference works, encyclopedias, and dictionaries. Europeans and North Americans are shown to be responsible for 97 per cent of scientific accomplishment from 800 BC to 1950. Statistically, when it comes to curing disease, building bridges, inventing glasses or devising new, better modes of transport, Western man is in a league of his own. Combined Sciences Figure Index score Isaac Newton 100 Galileo Galilei 89 Aristotle 78 Johannes Kepler 53 Antoine Lavoisier 51 René Descartes 51 Christiaan Huygens 49 Pierre-Simon Laplace 48 Albert Einstein 48 Michael Faraday 46 Louis Pasteur 46 Ptolemy 43 Robert Hooke 41 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 40 Ernest Rutherford 40 Leonhard Euler 39 Charles Darwin 37 Jöns Jacob Berzelius 36 Euclid 36 James Clerk Maxwell 35 Astronomy Figure Index score Galileo Galilei 100 Johannes Kepler 93 William Herschel 88 Pierre-Simon Laplace 79 Nicolaus Copernicus 75 Ptolemy 73 Tycho Brahe 68 Edmond Halley 57 Giovanni Domenico Cassini 53 Hipparchus 49 Walter Baade 47 Edwin Hubble 45 Friedrich Bessel 39 William Huggins 38 George Ellery Hale 37 Arthur Eddington 37 Ejnar Hertzsprung 35 Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers 33 Gerard Kuiper 32 Johannes Hevelius 30 Mathematics Figure Index score Leonhard Euler 100 Isaac Newton 89 Euclid 83 Carl Friedrich Gauss 81 Pierre de Fermat 72 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 72 René Descartes 54 Georg Cantor 50 Blaise Pascal 47 Bernhard Riemann 47 David Hilbert 40 Jakob Bernoulli 40 Diophantus 39 Gerolamo Cardano 37 François Viète 36 Adrien-Marie Legendre 36 John Wallis 36 Augustin-Louis Cauchy 35 Fibonacci 34 Archimedes 33 Medicine Figure Index score Louis Pasteur 100 Hippocrates 93 Robert Koch 90 Galen 74 Paracelsus 68 Paul Ehrlich 59 René Laennec 54 Elmer McCollum 49 Alexander Fleming 47 Ambroise Paré 46 Emil Adolf von Behring 44 Joseph Lister 43 Kitasato Shibasaburō 42 Thomas Sydenham 40 Andreas Vesalius 38 Gerhard Domagk 36 Alexis Carrel 36 Sigmund Freud 34 John Hunter 34 Ignaz Semmelweis 34 Western Art Figure Index score Michelangelo 100 Pablo Picasso 77 Raphael 73 Leonardo da Vinci 61 Titian 60 Albrecht Dürer 56 Rembrandt 56 Giotto 54 Gian Lorenzo Bernini 53 Paul Cézanne 50 Peter Paul Rubens 49 Caravaggio 43 Diego Velázquez 43 Donatello 42 Jan van Eyck 42 Francisco Goya 41 Claude Monet 41 Masaccio 41 Vincent van Gogh 40 Paul Gauguin 38 Western Literature Figure Index score William Shakespeare 100 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 81 Dante Alighieri 62 Virgil 55 Homer 54 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 48 Voltaire 47 Molière 43 Lord Byron 42 Leo Tolstoy 42 Fyodor Dostoyevsky 41 Petrarch 40 Victor Hugo 40 Friedrich Schiller 38 Giovanni Boccaccio 35 Horace 35 Euripides 35 Jean Racine 34 Walter Scott 33 Henrik Ibsen 32 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Accomplishment#Index_scores

Italian Renaissance

Italian Renaissance

Italian Renaissance in The Hermitage Museum The first part of the series “Italian Renaissance – faith in harmony and beauty” represents works by the Early Renaissance masters: Fra Beato Angelico, Simone Martini, Filippino Lippi, and by masters of the High Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Giorgione, Titian and Michelangelo. Interrelation between the Italian art Schools can be observed in the works of Florentine, Venetian and Umbrian painters of the XIV – XVI-th centuries.

E.Moser, J.Hamari, N.Gedda & D.Fischer-Dieskau - W.A. Mozart "Vesperae Solennes de Confessore" II

E.Moser, J.Hamari, N.Gedda & D.Fischer-Dieskau - W.A. Mozart "Vesperae Solennes de Confessore" II

W.A. Mozart "Vesperae Solennes de Confessore" Part ll K.339 lV. Laudate pueri V. Laudate Dominum VI. Magnificat Edda Moser - Soprano Julia Hamari - Mezzo-soprano Nicholai Gedda - Tenor Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau - Bass Eugen Jochum - Director Chor & Orchester des Bayerichen Rundfunks Paintings: Fra Angelico (c. 1284 -- 1344) Special thanks to Fehlzeiten for her support. The Italian painter Fra Angelico (ca. 1387-1455) achieved a unique synthesis of the mystical, visionary realms of medieval devotional painting with the Renaissance concern for representing the visually perceived world of mass, space, and light. The monastic life of Fra Angelico began about 1418in the Order of Dominican Preachers in Fiesole, near Florence. His secular name had been Guido di Pietro, and his monastic name was Fra Giovanni da Fiesole. The appellatives Fra Angelico and Beato Angelico came into use only after his death to recall his spirituality as a man and an artist. The painter's earliest known works were created at the monastery of S. Domenico at Fiesole in the late 1420s and early 1430s. The Annunciation of about 1430 (Museo del Gesù, Cortona) and the Linaiuoli Altarpiece (Madonna of the Linen Guild, Museo di S. Marco, Florence) reveal the essential directions of Fra Angelico's art. Reminiscences of the style of Lorenzo Monaco, the Camaldolese monk-painter who may have been Fra Angelico's first master in passages of rhythmic line and in the intimate narration of predella panels, are overshadowed by the impact of the more progressive styles of Masaccio and Masolino. The draperies of Fra Angelico's gentle people are modeled in chiaroscuro, and these Virgins, saints, and angels exist in a world constructed on the principles of linear and atmospheric perspective. Numerous large altarpieces and small tabernacles (Madonnas and Saints, Last Judgments, Coronations of the Virgin) were commissioned from the painter and his flourishing shop in the 1430s. From 1438 to 1445 Fra Angelico was principally occupied with the fresco program and altarpiece for the Dominican monastery of S. Marco in Florence. The church and monastic quarters were newly rebuilt at this time under the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici, with Michelozzo as architect for the project. The frescoes by the master and his assistants are situated throughout the cloister, corridors, chapter house, and cells. In the midst of the traditional subjects form the life of Christ, figures of Dominican saints contemplate and meditate upon the sacred events, so that the scenes convey a sense of mystical, devotional transport. At the same time the dramatic immediacy is heightened by the inclusion of architectural details of S. Marco itself in some of the narrative scenes, most notably the Annuniciation with its view of a corner of the cloister. A masterpiece of panel painting created at the same time as the S. Marco project is the Deposition altarpiece, commissioned by the Strozzi family for the Church of Sta Trinita (Museo di S. Marco, Florence; the pinnacles, as well as the predella now in the Uffizi, were painted earlier by Lorenzo Monaco). The richly colored and luminous figures, the panoramic views of the Tuscan landscape serving as a backdrop to Calvary, and the forthright division into sacred and secular personages reveal Fra Angelico as an artist in tune with the concepts and methods of the Renaissance. And yet, all of the accomplishments in representation do not diminish the air of religious rapture. The final decade of Fra Angelico's life was spent mainly in Rome (ca. 1445-1449 and ca. 1453-1455), with 3 years in Florence (ca. 1450-1452) as prior of S. Domenico at Fiesole. His principal surviving work of these final years is the frescoes of scenes from the lives of Saints Lawrence and Stephen in the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V in the Vatican, Rome. The dramatic figure groupings serve to summarize the long tradition of 14th-and early 15th-century Florentine fresco painting. In the rigorous construction and abundant classical detail of the architectural backgrounds, the dignity and luxury of a Roman setting are appropriately conveyed. In spite of the fact that his life unfolded in a monastic environment, Fra Angelico's art stands as an important link between the first and later generations in the mainstream of Florentine Renaissance painting.

Early Renaissance Painting Part 2

Early Renaissance Painting Part 2

Leonardo da Vinci - Painter of Famous Renaissance Masterpieces - Video 4 of 6

Leonardo da Vinci - Painter of Famous Renaissance Masterpieces - Video 4 of 6

Leonardo da Vinci - Painter of Famous Renaissance Masterpieces - Video 4 of 6 - Authentic Hand Painted Canvas Art (Leonardo da Vinci Oil Paintings) Free Shipping - Link Below...... http://www.FamousArtistsofHistory.com/LeonardoDaVincioilpaintings.php - Video Testimonials (1000s) on Authentic Hand Painted Canvas Art Paintings....... http://www.FamousArtistsofHistory.com/VideoTestimonialsOnOilPaintingReproductions.php http://www.GodistheCreator.com http://www.PaintingsTube.com http://www.AddictionTube.com Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 -- May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination" Leonardo da Vinci - The Man Who Wanted to Know Everything "A painter should begin every canvas with a wash of black, because all things in nature are dark except where exposed by the light." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Painting is poetry that is seen rather than felt, and poetry is painting that is felt rather than seen." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Once you have tasted flight, you will forever walk the earth with your eyes turned skyward, for there you have been, and there you will always long to return." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Study without desire spoils the memory, and it retains nothing that it takes in." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication." ― Leonardo da Vinci "The painter has the Universe in his mind and hands." ― Leonardo da Vinci "It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things." ― Leonardo da Vinci "One can have no smaller or greater mastery than mastery of oneself." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Nothing can be loved or hated unless it is first understood." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Life is pretty simple: You do some stuff. Most fails. Some works. You do more of what works. If it works big, others quickly copy it. Then you do something else. The trick is the doing something else." ― Leonardo da Vinci "The noblest pleasure is the joy of understanding." ― Leonardo da Vinci "The smallest feline is a masterpiece." ― Leonardo da Vinci "As a well spent day brings happy sleep, so life well used brings happy death." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Nothing strengthens authority so much as silence." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Art is never finished, only abandoned." ― Leonardo da Vinci "The greatest deception men suffer is from their own opinions." ― Leonardo da Vinci "I love those who can smile in trouble, who can gather strength from distress, and grow brave by reflection. 'Tis the business of little minds to shrink, but they whose heart is firm, and whose conscience approves their conduct, will pursue their principles unto death" ― Leonardo da Vinci "The function of muscle is to pull and not to push, except in the case of the genitals and the tongue." ― Leonardo da Vinci "I love those who can smile in trouble..."― Leonardo da Vinci The list below is a small selection of the Famous Paintings available.... 1) The Virgin of the Rocks, Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $149.00, In Stock! Ships in 1-2 days 2) The Last Supper, Leonardo Da Vinci, 36 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $448.00 3) Mona Lisa, Leonardo Da Vinci, 24 x 36 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $269.00 4) Mona Lisa, Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $149.00, In Stock! Ships in 1-2 days 5) Lady With an Ermine, Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $149.00, In Stock! Ships in 1-2 days 6) Female Head (La Scapigliata), Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $149.00 7) Mona Lisa Pre-Framed, Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $378.00, In Stock! Ships in 1-2 days 8) The Last Supper Pre-Framed, Leonardo Da Vinci, 36 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $667.00 9) Lady With an Ermine, Leonardo Da Vinci, 24 x 36 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $269.00 10) Lady With an Ermine Pre-Framed, Leonardo Da Vinci, 24 x 36 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $428.00 Authentic Hand Painted Canvas Art (Famous Masterpieces) Free Shipping.... http://www.FamousArtistsofHistory.com/FamousArtistPaintingsOnYourWall.php

Fantasy oil painting technique

Fantasy oil painting technique

Title: For The Love Of My Country (Post traumatic stress of war) This artwork explores the soldiers psychological state after the war, Which is commonly known as Post Traumatic Stress disorder. The eye symbolises the soldier having flashbacks of a particular phase of the war and suffering witnessed at first hand, the deformed figure represents the state in which the soldier is in when suffering PTSD. The figure is somewhat hunched into a fetal position as if to protect himself from the outside world of death, however the much smaller upper body depicts the physical state of the soldier, almost suicidal. The hand pointing up towards the sky is pleading for help. The flashbacks of explosions, the loud noise of the tank, war planes firing and keeping watch of the enemy at night. The memories of the battle front and the frightening scenes at night relived constantly. The waterfall tears represents a lifetime of mental suffering and scarred memories etched into the soldiers mind. This is what our brave soldiers go through for the love of their country. As some of you may know my name is Mario Sukkar, I am an 18 year old professional artist and I paint portraits and landscapes in oils and acrylics and other media. I started drawing since I could pick up a pencil at age of 4, drawing stick figures, cartoons and by the age of 7 I started drawing realistic portraits, which lead to painting at the age of 11. Eversince, I developed my skill through intensive hours of practice and trial and error to get to where I am now, skill wise and accomplishments. Such major accomplishments include, Winning the 2014 Young Archie competition (Art Gallery Of NSW), 2015 Honourable Mention (Young Archie), Finalist Young Australian Art Awards 2012, 2013, Westmead Hospital Art prize Finalist 2013,14, The Bishop Daniel Delany International Art competition 2013, 1st place chapter 6 and 2nd chapter 1, Winning the Australian Lebanese Association Award 2014 for the category Art-Painting. First ever painting of the Lord Mayor of Parramatta (Paul Garrard) which is currently on display at the Parramatta Heritage Centre. Art has always been my passion and forever will. For any commission work or interested in purchasing a painting, feel free to call or email me. If you would like prints of my work please do not hesitate to message me! Music: Alan Walker - Force [NCS Release] Website: www.mariosukkarart.com Facebook: Mario Sukkar Artist Instagram: @mariosukkar Twitter: @mariosukkar THANKS FOR WATCHING

L’Adorazione dei Magi è un capolavoro del pittore fiorentino Sandro Botticelli

L’Adorazione dei Magi è un capolavoro del pittore fiorentino Sandro Botticelli

https://www.novikos.com L’Adorazione dei Magi è un dipinto a tempera su tavola di 111 centimetri per 134. Realizzato nel 1475, è considerato il primo capolavoro del pittore fiorentino Sandro Botticelli. L’artista toscano è uno dei maestri del movimento intellettuale e artistico chiamato Rinascimento. Sviluppatosi in Europa tra il XV e il XVI secolo, il Rinascimento coniuga i modelli di armonia e bellezza propri dell’antichità classica, con le nuove conoscenze e lo spirito umanista dell’età moderna. In Italia il centro più vivace della cultura rinascimentale si trova nella Firenze governata dalla famiglia de’ Medici. Proprio a Firenze Botticelli riscuote i suoi maggiori successi. Dopo anni di praticantato presso alcuni artisti della città, nel 1470 il pittore apre la propria bottega e riceve numerose commissioni. Nel 1475 Gaspare di Zanobi del Lama, un banchiere in stretti rapporti con i Medici, lo incarica di dipingere l’Adorazione dei Magi per la propria cappella nella chiesa di Santa Maria Novella. Il soggetto del dipinto è ricorrente in molte opere di questo periodo. L’interpretazione che ne dà il Botticelli, però, appare innovativa sotto molti aspetti. L’artista infatti, nonostante il tema sacro, decide di raffigurare personaggi reali, appartenenti al mondo politico fiorentino. In particolare dipinge alcuni componenti della famiglia de’ Medici, realizzando così un prestigioso tributo ai signori della città e un importante documento storico. Gli studiosi ritengono infatti che i 3 magi inginocchiati di fronte alla Sacra Famiglia corrispondano al patriarca Cosimo il Vecchio e ai suoi figli Piero e Giovanni. Il personaggio vestito di rosso in primo piano a sinistra, invece, sarebbe Lorenzo il Magnifico, signore di Firenze nella seconda metà del ‘400, uno dei de’ Medici rappresentati, insieme a Giovanni, ad essere ancora in vita nel 1475. Cosimo e Piero infatti, sono defunti da anni. Il pittore riserva nel dipinto anche uno spazio per se stesso: vestito di giallo, si trova all’estrema destra del dipinto. Anche il committente sarebbe ritratto, sempre sulla destra, con il dito puntato verso chi osserva l’opera. Altro elemento innovativo dell’opera risulta poi il taglio frontale che Botticelli dà alla scena. Smarcandosi dalla tradizione, il pittore non colloca la Sacra Famiglia di lato, isolandola dagli altri personaggi, ma la pone al centro del dipinto. Oggi l’Adorazione dei Magi è esposta nella Galleria degli Uffizi di Firenze. The Adoration of the Magi is a tempera painting on a table of 111 centimeters by 134. Created in 1475, it is considered the first masterpiece of the Florentine painter Sandro Botticelli. The Tuscan artist is one of the masters of the intellectual and artistic movement called the Renaissance. Developed in Europe between the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Renaissance combines the models of harmony and beauty typical of classical antiquity, with the new knowledge and the humanist spirit of the modern age. In Italy the most lively center of Renaissance culture is found in Florence governed by the Medici family. Just in Florence Botticelli receives its greatest successes. After years of practicing with some artists of the city, in 1470 the painter opened his own shop and received numerous commissions. In 1475 Gaspare di Zanobi del Lama, a banker in close relationship with the Medici, instructed him to paint the Adoration of the Magi for his chapel in the church of Santa Maria Novella. The subject of the painting is recurrent in many works of this period. The interpretation given by Botticelli, however, appears innovative in many respects. In fact, despite the sacred theme, the artist decides to depict real characters belonging to the Florentine political world. In particular, he paints some members of the Medici family, thus creating a prestigious tribute to the lords of the city and an important historical document. The scholars believe that the 3 kneels kneeling before the Holy Family correspond to the patriarch Cosimo the Elder and his sons Piero and Giovanni. The character dressed in red in the foreground on the left, however, would be Lorenzo the Magnificent, lord of Florence in the second half of the fifteenth century, one of the Medici represented, together with Giovanni, still alive in 1475. Cosimo e Piero in fact, they have been dead for years. The painter also reserves a space for himself in the painting: dressed in yellow, he is on the extreme right of the painting. Even the client would be portrayed, always on the right, with his finger pointed at who observes the work. Another innovative element of the work is the front cut that Botticelli gives to the scene. By dividing himself from tradition, the painter does not place the Holy Family on the side, isolating it from the other characters, but places it at the center of the painting. Today the Adoration of the Magi is exhibited in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.

What Did Brunelleschi Do For The Renaissance?

What Did Brunelleschi Do For The Renaissance?

He solved italian renaissance architects based their theories and practices on three key figures in architecture were filippo brunelleschi, leon battista make research projects school reports about brunelleschi easy with credible the first architect, he also formulated principles of linear a much greater concern for unified composition than s. Brunelleschi was the father of renaissance architecture and most prominent filippo brunelleschi, son a lawyer, born in florence, italy 1377 sep 13, 2016 brunelleschi one leading architects engineers italian renaissance, is best known for his work on cathedral santa maria del fiore (the duomo) florence (born 1377, [italy] died april 15, 1446, florence), architect engineer who pioneers early an designer key figure architecture, recognised to be first modern engineer, planner sole construction supervisor. Ca schools projects renaissance brunelleschi. The first renaissance architect, he also formulated the principles of linear perspective a much greater concern for unified composition than s. An etching of masaccio which today can be found at the national gallery in london. He was the first modern engineer and a problem solver with unorthodox methods. Googleusercontent search. Together with brunelleschi and donatello, he was a founder of the renaissance during early renaissance, fillipo brought even more fame to city as did not limit his working environment florence alone explore life work architect filippo test your understanding italian european history, apr 28, 2011 is probably among names most people associate without contributions, would have been very different. Filippobrunelleschi italian renaissance architect filippo brunelleschi became intent on creating a new artin the early years of visit if you can florence is magnificent city how did hot tempered goldsmith with no formal architectural training create most miraculous edifice renaissance? Archival records at year's end do name sole inventor and director cupola, later his nov 20, 2011. Brunelleschi was one of seven artists to enter, but despite the high quality his work, did not win, and work compared that lorenzo ghiberti, wouldn't do for him. Encyclopedia filippo brunelleschi early renaissance architect, florence cathedral. Lorenzo does masaccio was the first great painter of renaissance in italy online. Brunelleschi yesnet. Filippo brunelleschi artwork, architecture & facts video lesson and the re discovery of linear perspective dome florentine cathedral. He was one of the founding fathers renaissance. Also, the parallel lines of walls do not recede into distance influence revival antiquity during renaissance is perhaps most visible in architecture period. Fillipo brunelleschi the galileo project. Html url? Q webcache. Inspired by the classical ruins architects. Linear perspective brunelleschi's experiment (video) filippo brunelleschi facts biography yourdictionary. Brunelleschi's success can be attributed, in no small degree, to his technical and

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