https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Accomplishment In the 2003 book, Human Accomplishment: Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 BC to 1950, Charles Murray, most widely known as the co-author of The Bell Curve, argued that the great artistic and scientific accomplishments were overwhelmingly European. ”What the human species is today,” he wrote, “it owes in astonishing degree to what was accomplished in just half a dozen centuries by the peoples of one small portion of the northwestern Eurasian land mass.” Murray ranks the leading 4,000 innovators in several fields of human accomplishment from 800 BC to 1950. Surveying outstanding contributions to the arts and sciences from ancient times to the mid-twentieth century, Murray attempts to quantify and explain human accomplishment worldwide in the fields of arts and sciences by calculating the amount of space allocated to them in reference works, an area of research sometimes referred to as historiometry. Murray did this by calculating the amount of space allocated to these individuals in reference works, encyclopedias, and dictionaries. Europeans and North Americans are shown to be responsible for 97 per cent of scientific accomplishment from 800 BC to 1950. Statistically, when it comes to curing disease, building bridges, inventing glasses or devising new, better modes of transport, Western man is in a league of his own. Combined Sciences Figure Index score Isaac Newton 100 Galileo Galilei 89 Aristotle 78 Johannes Kepler 53 Antoine Lavoisier 51 René Descartes 51 Christiaan Huygens 49 Pierre-Simon Laplace 48 Albert Einstein 48 Michael Faraday 46 Louis Pasteur 46 Ptolemy 43 Robert Hooke 41 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 40 Ernest Rutherford 40 Leonhard Euler 39 Charles Darwin 37 Jöns Jacob Berzelius 36 Euclid 36 James Clerk Maxwell 35 Astronomy Figure Index score Galileo Galilei 100 Johannes Kepler 93 William Herschel 88 Pierre-Simon Laplace 79 Nicolaus Copernicus 75 Ptolemy 73 Tycho Brahe 68 Edmond Halley 57 Giovanni Domenico Cassini 53 Hipparchus 49 Walter Baade 47 Edwin Hubble 45 Friedrich Bessel 39 William Huggins 38 George Ellery Hale 37 Arthur Eddington 37 Ejnar Hertzsprung 35 Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers 33 Gerard Kuiper 32 Johannes Hevelius 30 Mathematics Figure Index score Leonhard Euler 100 Isaac Newton 89 Euclid 83 Carl Friedrich Gauss 81 Pierre de Fermat 72 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 72 René Descartes 54 Georg Cantor 50 Blaise Pascal 47 Bernhard Riemann 47 David Hilbert 40 Jakob Bernoulli 40 Diophantus 39 Gerolamo Cardano 37 François Viète 36 Adrien-Marie Legendre 36 John Wallis 36 Augustin-Louis Cauchy 35 Fibonacci 34 Archimedes 33 Medicine Figure Index score Louis Pasteur 100 Hippocrates 93 Robert Koch 90 Galen 74 Paracelsus 68 Paul Ehrlich 59 René Laennec 54 Elmer McCollum 49 Alexander Fleming 47 Ambroise Paré 46 Emil Adolf von Behring 44 Joseph Lister 43 Kitasato Shibasaburō 42 Thomas Sydenham 40 Andreas Vesalius 38 Gerhard Domagk 36 Alexis Carrel 36 Sigmund Freud 34 John Hunter 34 Ignaz Semmelweis 34 Western Art Figure Index score Michelangelo 100 Pablo Picasso 77 Raphael 73 Leonardo da Vinci 61 Titian 60 Albrecht Dürer 56 Rembrandt 56 Giotto 54 Gian Lorenzo Bernini 53 Paul Cézanne 50 Peter Paul Rubens 49 Caravaggio 43 Diego Velázquez 43 Donatello 42 Jan van Eyck 42 Francisco Goya 41 Claude Monet 41 Masaccio 41 Vincent van Gogh 40 Paul Gauguin 38 Western Literature Figure Index score William Shakespeare 100 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 81 Dante Alighieri 62 Virgil 55 Homer 54 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 48 Voltaire 47 Molière 43 Lord Byron 42 Leo Tolstoy 42 Fyodor Dostoyevsky 41 Petrarch 40 Victor Hugo 40 Friedrich Schiller 38 Giovanni Boccaccio 35 Horace 35 Euripides 35 Jean Racine 34 Walter Scott 33 Henrik Ibsen 32 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Accomplishment#Index_scores
Hear two outstanding scholars consider the art of biography and poetics of portraiture in fifteenth-century Italy. Presented with the exhibition The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Learn more: http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2011/the-renaissance-portrait-from-donatello-to-bellini Lectures Portraits in Words: The Arts of Biography in Fifteenth-Century Italy Anthony Grafton, Henry Putnam University Professor of History, Princeton University Leonardo's Ginevra de' Benci and the Poetics of Portraiture in Fifteenth-Century Florence Caroline Elam, senior research fellow, The Warburg Institute, University of London This event is made possible in part by the Italian Cultural Institute. The exhibition is made possible by the William Randolph Hearst Foundation, the Diane W. and James E. Burke Fund, the Gail and Parker Gilbert Fund, and The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation. The exhibition was organized by Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. It is supported by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities. The exhibition catalogue is made possible by the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation, Inc.
Italian Renaissance in The Hermitage Museum The first part of the series “Italian Renaissance – faith in harmony and beauty” represents works by the Early Renaissance masters: Fra Beato Angelico, Simone Martini, Filippino Lippi, and by masters of the High Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Giorgione, Titian and Michelangelo. Interrelation between the Italian art Schools can be observed in the works of Florentine, Venetian and Umbrian painters of the XIV – XVI-th centuries.
Laurence Kanter Friday, February 2, 2018, 1:30 pm Over the past two decades, discoveries made in museums around the world have led to a new understanding of the early career of one of the towering masters of the Italian Renaissance, the artist known today as Fra Angelico. Now, conservation work at the Yale University Art Gallery has uncovered what may be Angelico’s first documented painting—long thought to have been lost—and opens new perspectives on the key role he played in the opening years of the 15th century in the formation of a modern style of naturalistic representation. Laurence Kanter, Chief Curator and the Lionel Goldfrank III Curator of European Art, addresses the early work of Fra Angelico. Generously sponsored by the John Walsh Lecture and Education Fund.
According to archaeological diggings, presence of modern human date back to 200,000 years ago to the Palaeolithic time. The Greek colonies settled in the southern portion of the peninsula and the Sicily in the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. By 6th and 5th century BC they were in their Neolithic time. The commencement of Bronze Age of the Italian Empire is considered as 1500 BC.
The House of Medici (/ˈmɛdɨtʃi/ MED-i-chee; Italian pronunciation: [de ˈmɛːditʃi]) was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank. The bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, seeing the Medici gain political power in Florence — though officially they remained citizens rather than monarchs. The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), Pope Pius IV (1559–1565), and Pope Leo XI (1605); two regent queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1559) and Marie de' Medici (1600–1610); and, in 1531, the family became hereditary Dukes of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to a grand duchy after territorial expansion. They ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the earlier grand dukes, but by the time of Cosimo III de' Medici, Tuscany was fiscally bankrupt. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Florence and Uffizi Gallery
W.A. Mozart "Vesperae Solennes de Confessore" Part ll K.339 lV. Laudate pueri V. Laudate Dominum VI. Magnificat Edda Moser - Soprano Julia Hamari - Mezzo-soprano Nicholai Gedda - Tenor Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau - Bass Eugen Jochum - Director Chor & Orchester des Bayerichen Rundfunks Paintings: Fra Angelico (c. 1284 -- 1344) Special thanks to Fehlzeiten for her support. The Italian painter Fra Angelico (ca. 1387-1455) achieved a unique synthesis of the mystical, visionary realms of medieval devotional painting with the Renaissance concern for representing the visually perceived world of mass, space, and light. The monastic life of Fra Angelico began about 1418in the Order of Dominican Preachers in Fiesole, near Florence. His secular name had been Guido di Pietro, and his monastic name was Fra Giovanni da Fiesole. The appellatives Fra Angelico and Beato Angelico came into use only after his death to recall his spirituality as a man and an artist. The painter's earliest known works were created at the monastery of S. Domenico at Fiesole in the late 1420s and early 1430s. The Annunciation of about 1430 (Museo del Gesù, Cortona) and the Linaiuoli Altarpiece (Madonna of the Linen Guild, Museo di S. Marco, Florence) reveal the essential directions of Fra Angelico's art. Reminiscences of the style of Lorenzo Monaco, the Camaldolese monk-painter who may have been Fra Angelico's first master in passages of rhythmic line and in the intimate narration of predella panels, are overshadowed by the impact of the more progressive styles of Masaccio and Masolino. The draperies of Fra Angelico's gentle people are modeled in chiaroscuro, and these Virgins, saints, and angels exist in a world constructed on the principles of linear and atmospheric perspective. Numerous large altarpieces and small tabernacles (Madonnas and Saints, Last Judgments, Coronations of the Virgin) were commissioned from the painter and his flourishing shop in the 1430s. From 1438 to 1445 Fra Angelico was principally occupied with the fresco program and altarpiece for the Dominican monastery of S. Marco in Florence. The church and monastic quarters were newly rebuilt at this time under the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici, with Michelozzo as architect for the project. The frescoes by the master and his assistants are situated throughout the cloister, corridors, chapter house, and cells. In the midst of the traditional subjects form the life of Christ, figures of Dominican saints contemplate and meditate upon the sacred events, so that the scenes convey a sense of mystical, devotional transport. At the same time the dramatic immediacy is heightened by the inclusion of architectural details of S. Marco itself in some of the narrative scenes, most notably the Annuniciation with its view of a corner of the cloister. A masterpiece of panel painting created at the same time as the S. Marco project is the Deposition altarpiece, commissioned by the Strozzi family for the Church of Sta Trinita (Museo di S. Marco, Florence; the pinnacles, as well as the predella now in the Uffizi, were painted earlier by Lorenzo Monaco). The richly colored and luminous figures, the panoramic views of the Tuscan landscape serving as a backdrop to Calvary, and the forthright division into sacred and secular personages reveal Fra Angelico as an artist in tune with the concepts and methods of the Renaissance. And yet, all of the accomplishments in representation do not diminish the air of religious rapture. The final decade of Fra Angelico's life was spent mainly in Rome (ca. 1445-1449 and ca. 1453-1455), with 3 years in Florence (ca. 1450-1452) as prior of S. Domenico at Fiesole. His principal surviving work of these final years is the frescoes of scenes from the lives of Saints Lawrence and Stephen in the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V in the Vatican, Rome. The dramatic figure groupings serve to summarize the long tradition of 14th-and early 15th-century Florentine fresco painting. In the rigorous construction and abundant classical detail of the architectural backgrounds, the dignity and luxury of a Roman setting are appropriately conveyed. In spite of the fact that his life unfolded in a monastic environment, Fra Angelico's art stands as an important link between the first and later generations in the mainstream of Florentine Renaissance painting.