Europeans and North Americans are responsible for 97 percent of scientific accomplishment

Europeans and North Americans are responsible for 97 percent of scientific accomplishment

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Accomplishment In the 2003 book, Human Accomplishment: Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 BC to 1950, Charles Murray, most widely known as the co-author of The Bell Curve, argued that the great artistic and scientific accomplishments were overwhelmingly European. ”What the human species is today,” he wrote, “it owes in astonishing degree to what was accomplished in just half a dozen centuries by the peoples of one small portion of the northwestern Eurasian land mass.” Murray ranks the leading 4,000 innovators in several fields of human accomplishment from 800 BC to 1950. Surveying outstanding contributions to the arts and sciences from ancient times to the mid-twentieth century, Murray attempts to quantify and explain human accomplishment worldwide in the fields of arts and sciences by calculating the amount of space allocated to them in reference works, an area of research sometimes referred to as historiometry. Murray did this by calculating the amount of space allocated to these individuals in reference works, encyclopedias, and dictionaries. Europeans and North Americans are shown to be responsible for 97 per cent of scientific accomplishment from 800 BC to 1950. Statistically, when it comes to curing disease, building bridges, inventing glasses or devising new, better modes of transport, Western man is in a league of his own. Combined Sciences Figure Index score Isaac Newton 100 Galileo Galilei 89 Aristotle 78 Johannes Kepler 53 Antoine Lavoisier 51 René Descartes 51 Christiaan Huygens 49 Pierre-Simon Laplace 48 Albert Einstein 48 Michael Faraday 46 Louis Pasteur 46 Ptolemy 43 Robert Hooke 41 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 40 Ernest Rutherford 40 Leonhard Euler 39 Charles Darwin 37 Jöns Jacob Berzelius 36 Euclid 36 James Clerk Maxwell 35 Astronomy Figure Index score Galileo Galilei 100 Johannes Kepler 93 William Herschel 88 Pierre-Simon Laplace 79 Nicolaus Copernicus 75 Ptolemy 73 Tycho Brahe 68 Edmond Halley 57 Giovanni Domenico Cassini 53 Hipparchus 49 Walter Baade 47 Edwin Hubble 45 Friedrich Bessel 39 William Huggins 38 George Ellery Hale 37 Arthur Eddington 37 Ejnar Hertzsprung 35 Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers 33 Gerard Kuiper 32 Johannes Hevelius 30 Mathematics Figure Index score Leonhard Euler 100 Isaac Newton 89 Euclid 83 Carl Friedrich Gauss 81 Pierre de Fermat 72 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 72 René Descartes 54 Georg Cantor 50 Blaise Pascal 47 Bernhard Riemann 47 David Hilbert 40 Jakob Bernoulli 40 Diophantus 39 Gerolamo Cardano 37 François Viète 36 Adrien-Marie Legendre 36 John Wallis 36 Augustin-Louis Cauchy 35 Fibonacci 34 Archimedes 33 Medicine Figure Index score Louis Pasteur 100 Hippocrates 93 Robert Koch 90 Galen 74 Paracelsus 68 Paul Ehrlich 59 René Laennec 54 Elmer McCollum 49 Alexander Fleming 47 Ambroise Paré 46 Emil Adolf von Behring 44 Joseph Lister 43 Kitasato Shibasaburō 42 Thomas Sydenham 40 Andreas Vesalius 38 Gerhard Domagk 36 Alexis Carrel 36 Sigmund Freud 34 John Hunter 34 Ignaz Semmelweis 34 Western Art Figure Index score Michelangelo 100 Pablo Picasso 77 Raphael 73 Leonardo da Vinci 61 Titian 60 Albrecht Dürer 56 Rembrandt 56 Giotto 54 Gian Lorenzo Bernini 53 Paul Cézanne 50 Peter Paul Rubens 49 Caravaggio 43 Diego Velázquez 43 Donatello 42 Jan van Eyck 42 Francisco Goya 41 Claude Monet 41 Masaccio 41 Vincent van Gogh 40 Paul Gauguin 38 Western Literature Figure Index score William Shakespeare 100 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 81 Dante Alighieri 62 Virgil 55 Homer 54 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 48 Voltaire 47 Molière 43 Lord Byron 42 Leo Tolstoy 42 Fyodor Dostoyevsky 41 Petrarch 40 Victor Hugo 40 Friedrich Schiller 38 Giovanni Boccaccio 35 Horace 35 Euripides 35 Jean Racine 34 Walter Scott 33 Henrik Ibsen 32 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Accomplishment#Index_scores

In Search of Fra Angelico: The Artist as a Young Man

In Search of Fra Angelico: The Artist as a Young Man

Laurence Kanter Friday, February 2, 2018, 1:30 pm Over the past two decades, discoveries made in museums around the world have led to a new understanding of the early career of one of the towering masters of the Italian Renaissance, the artist known today as Fra Angelico. Now, conservation work at the Yale University Art Gallery has uncovered what may be Angelico’s first documented painting—long thought to have been lost—and opens new perspectives on the key role he played in the opening years of the 15th century in the formation of a modern style of naturalistic representation. Laurence Kanter, Chief Curator and the Lionel Goldfrank III Curator of European Art, addresses the early work of Fra Angelico. Generously sponsored by the John Walsh Lecture and Education Fund.

The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini

The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini

Hear two outstanding scholars consider the art of biography and poetics of portraiture in fifteenth-century Italy. Presented with the exhibition The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Learn more: http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2011/the-renaissance-portrait-from-donatello-to-bellini Lectures Portraits in Words: The Arts of Biography in Fifteenth-Century Italy Anthony Grafton, Henry Putnam University Professor of History, Princeton University Leonardo's Ginevra de' Benci and the Poetics of Portraiture in Fifteenth-Century Florence Caroline Elam, senior research fellow, The Warburg Institute, University of London This event is made possible in part by the Italian Cultural Institute. The exhibition is made possible by the William Randolph Hearst Foundation, the Diane W. and James E. Burke Fund, the Gail and Parker Gilbert Fund, and The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation. The exhibition was organized by Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. It is supported by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities. The exhibition catalogue is made possible by the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation, Inc.

局部 第二画 死亡壁画堪比鬼吹灯 陈丹青被吓丢魂 20150623

局部 第二画 死亡壁画堪比鬼吹灯 陈丹青被吓丢魂 20150623

本期节目陈丹青将为大家讲述中欧文化的巨大差异。文艺复兴时期的一副作品为何让他吓得他魂飞魄散?陈丹青为何惧怕敦煌壁画中的牛鬼蛇神?中外画作的禁忌话题有何不同?精彩内容,敬请期待!

History of Italy Documentary

History of Italy Documentary

According to archaeological diggings, presence of modern human date back to 200,000 years ago to the Palaeolithic time. The Greek colonies settled in the southern portion of the peninsula and the Sicily in the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. By 6th and 5th century BC they were in their Neolithic time. The commencement of Bronze Age of the Italian Empire is considered as 1500 BC.

E.Moser, J.Hamari, N.Gedda & D.Fischer-Dieskau - W.A. Mozart "Vesperae Solennes de Confessore" II

E.Moser, J.Hamari, N.Gedda & D.Fischer-Dieskau - W.A. Mozart "Vesperae Solennes de Confessore" II

W.A. Mozart "Vesperae Solennes de Confessore" Part ll K.339 lV. Laudate pueri V. Laudate Dominum VI. Magnificat Edda Moser - Soprano Julia Hamari - Mezzo-soprano Nicholai Gedda - Tenor Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau - Bass Eugen Jochum - Director Chor & Orchester des Bayerichen Rundfunks Paintings: Fra Angelico (c. 1284 -- 1344) Special thanks to Fehlzeiten for her support. The Italian painter Fra Angelico (ca. 1387-1455) achieved a unique synthesis of the mystical, visionary realms of medieval devotional painting with the Renaissance concern for representing the visually perceived world of mass, space, and light. The monastic life of Fra Angelico began about 1418in the Order of Dominican Preachers in Fiesole, near Florence. His secular name had been Guido di Pietro, and his monastic name was Fra Giovanni da Fiesole. The appellatives Fra Angelico and Beato Angelico came into use only after his death to recall his spirituality as a man and an artist. The painter's earliest known works were created at the monastery of S. Domenico at Fiesole in the late 1420s and early 1430s. The Annunciation of about 1430 (Museo del Gesù, Cortona) and the Linaiuoli Altarpiece (Madonna of the Linen Guild, Museo di S. Marco, Florence) reveal the essential directions of Fra Angelico's art. Reminiscences of the style of Lorenzo Monaco, the Camaldolese monk-painter who may have been Fra Angelico's first master in passages of rhythmic line and in the intimate narration of predella panels, are overshadowed by the impact of the more progressive styles of Masaccio and Masolino. The draperies of Fra Angelico's gentle people are modeled in chiaroscuro, and these Virgins, saints, and angels exist in a world constructed on the principles of linear and atmospheric perspective. Numerous large altarpieces and small tabernacles (Madonnas and Saints, Last Judgments, Coronations of the Virgin) were commissioned from the painter and his flourishing shop in the 1430s. From 1438 to 1445 Fra Angelico was principally occupied with the fresco program and altarpiece for the Dominican monastery of S. Marco in Florence. The church and monastic quarters were newly rebuilt at this time under the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici, with Michelozzo as architect for the project. The frescoes by the master and his assistants are situated throughout the cloister, corridors, chapter house, and cells. In the midst of the traditional subjects form the life of Christ, figures of Dominican saints contemplate and meditate upon the sacred events, so that the scenes convey a sense of mystical, devotional transport. At the same time the dramatic immediacy is heightened by the inclusion of architectural details of S. Marco itself in some of the narrative scenes, most notably the Annuniciation with its view of a corner of the cloister. A masterpiece of panel painting created at the same time as the S. Marco project is the Deposition altarpiece, commissioned by the Strozzi family for the Church of Sta Trinita (Museo di S. Marco, Florence; the pinnacles, as well as the predella now in the Uffizi, were painted earlier by Lorenzo Monaco). The richly colored and luminous figures, the panoramic views of the Tuscan landscape serving as a backdrop to Calvary, and the forthright division into sacred and secular personages reveal Fra Angelico as an artist in tune with the concepts and methods of the Renaissance. And yet, all of the accomplishments in representation do not diminish the air of religious rapture. The final decade of Fra Angelico's life was spent mainly in Rome (ca. 1445-1449 and ca. 1453-1455), with 3 years in Florence (ca. 1450-1452) as prior of S. Domenico at Fiesole. His principal surviving work of these final years is the frescoes of scenes from the lives of Saints Lawrence and Stephen in the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V in the Vatican, Rome. The dramatic figure groupings serve to summarize the long tradition of 14th-and early 15th-century Florentine fresco painting. In the rigorous construction and abundant classical detail of the architectural backgrounds, the dignity and luxury of a Roman setting are appropriately conveyed. In spite of the fact that his life unfolded in a monastic environment, Fra Angelico's art stands as an important link between the first and later generations in the mainstream of Florentine Renaissance painting.

Firenze e Gli Uffizi2015

Firenze e Gli Uffizi2015

Florence and Uffizi Gallery

Leonardo da Vinci - Painter of Famous Renaissance Masterpieces - Video 4 of 6

Leonardo da Vinci - Painter of Famous Renaissance Masterpieces - Video 4 of 6

Leonardo da Vinci - Painter of Famous Renaissance Masterpieces - Video 4 of 6 - Authentic Hand Painted Canvas Art (Leonardo da Vinci Oil Paintings) Free Shipping - Link Below...... http://www.FamousArtistsofHistory.com/LeonardoDaVincioilpaintings.php - Video Testimonials (1000s) on Authentic Hand Painted Canvas Art Paintings....... http://www.FamousArtistsofHistory.com/VideoTestimonialsOnOilPaintingReproductions.php http://www.GodistheCreator.com http://www.PaintingsTube.com http://www.AddictionTube.com Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 -- May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination" Leonardo da Vinci - The Man Who Wanted to Know Everything "A painter should begin every canvas with a wash of black, because all things in nature are dark except where exposed by the light." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Painting is poetry that is seen rather than felt, and poetry is painting that is felt rather than seen." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Once you have tasted flight, you will forever walk the earth with your eyes turned skyward, for there you have been, and there you will always long to return." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Study without desire spoils the memory, and it retains nothing that it takes in." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication." ― Leonardo da Vinci "The painter has the Universe in his mind and hands." ― Leonardo da Vinci "It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things." ― Leonardo da Vinci "One can have no smaller or greater mastery than mastery of oneself." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Nothing can be loved or hated unless it is first understood." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Life is pretty simple: You do some stuff. Most fails. Some works. You do more of what works. If it works big, others quickly copy it. Then you do something else. The trick is the doing something else." ― Leonardo da Vinci "The noblest pleasure is the joy of understanding." ― Leonardo da Vinci "The smallest feline is a masterpiece." ― Leonardo da Vinci "As a well spent day brings happy sleep, so life well used brings happy death." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Nothing strengthens authority so much as silence." ― Leonardo da Vinci "Art is never finished, only abandoned." ― Leonardo da Vinci "The greatest deception men suffer is from their own opinions." ― Leonardo da Vinci "I love those who can smile in trouble, who can gather strength from distress, and grow brave by reflection. 'Tis the business of little minds to shrink, but they whose heart is firm, and whose conscience approves their conduct, will pursue their principles unto death" ― Leonardo da Vinci "The function of muscle is to pull and not to push, except in the case of the genitals and the tongue." ― Leonardo da Vinci "I love those who can smile in trouble..."― Leonardo da Vinci The list below is a small selection of the Famous Paintings available.... 1) The Virgin of the Rocks, Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $149.00, In Stock! Ships in 1-2 days 2) The Last Supper, Leonardo Da Vinci, 36 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $448.00 3) Mona Lisa, Leonardo Da Vinci, 24 x 36 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $269.00 4) Mona Lisa, Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $149.00, In Stock! Ships in 1-2 days 5) Lady With an Ermine, Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $149.00, In Stock! Ships in 1-2 days 6) Female Head (La Scapigliata), Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $149.00 7) Mona Lisa Pre-Framed, Leonardo Da Vinci, 20 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $378.00, In Stock! Ships in 1-2 days 8) The Last Supper Pre-Framed, Leonardo Da Vinci, 36 x 24 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $667.00 9) Lady With an Ermine, Leonardo Da Vinci, 24 x 36 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $269.00 10) Lady With an Ermine Pre-Framed, Leonardo Da Vinci, 24 x 36 inch canvas, Hand Painted Canvas Art, Price: $428.00 Authentic Hand Painted Canvas Art (Famous Masterpieces) Free Shipping.... http://www.FamousArtistsofHistory.com/FamousArtistPaintingsOnYourWall.php

Early Renaissance Painting Part 2

Early Renaissance Painting Part 2

House of Medici

House of Medici

The House of Medici (/ˈmɛdɨtʃi/ MED-i-chee; Italian pronunciation: [de ˈmɛːditʃi]) was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank. The bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, seeing the Medici gain political power in Florence — though officially they remained citizens rather than monarchs. The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), Pope Pius IV (1559–1565), and Pope Leo XI (1605); two regent queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1559) and Marie de' Medici (1600–1610); and, in 1531, the family became hereditary Dukes of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to a grand duchy after territorial expansion. They ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the earlier grand dukes, but by the time of Cosimo III de' Medici, Tuscany was fiscally bankrupt. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video

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