Fungi: Death Becomes Them - CrashCourse Biology #39

Fungi: Death Becomes Them - CrashCourse Biology #39

Death is what fungi are all about. By feasting on the deceased remains of almost all organisms on the planet, converting the organic matter back into soil from which new life will spring, they perform perhaps the most vital function in the global food web. Fungi, which thrive on death, make all life possible. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dft.ba/-8bCC Like CrashCourse? http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse! http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Table of Contents 1) Biolography 02:07 2) Structure 04:53 3) The Decomposers 06:10 4) The Mutualists 06:38 5) The Predators 07:23 6) The Parasites 07:35 7) Reproduction 08:24 References for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2i0c crashcourse, biology, hank green, fungi, fungus, detritivore, species, taxonomy, yeast, disease, death, organic matter, louis pasteur, biolography, beer, anaerobic respiration, fermentation, pasteurization, decompose, decomposition, soil, nutrient, recycle, mushroom, heterotroph, hyphae, chitin, mycelium, decomposer, mutualist, predator, parasite, enzyme, lignin, haustoria, mycorrhizae, sex, reproduction, spore, propagation, plasmogamy, asci, disperse, ascocarps, molds Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse

The Wonderful World Of Fungi Documentary 2018 | The Kingdom Fungi Documentary 2018

The Wonderful World Of Fungi Documentary 2018 | The Kingdom Fungi Documentary 2018

The Wonderful World Of Fungi Documentary 2018 The Kingdom Fungi includes some of the most important organisms, both in terms of their ecological and economic roles. By breaking down dead organic material, they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. In addition, most vascular plants could not grow without the symbiotic fungi, or mycorrhizae, that inhabit their roots and supply essential nutrients. Other fungi provide numerous drugs (such as penicillin and other antibiotics), foods like mushrooms, truffles and morels, and the bubbles in bread, champagne, and beer. Fungi also cause a number of plant and animal diseases: in humans, ringworm, athlete's foot, and several more serious diseases are caused by fungi. Because fungi are more chemically and genetically similar to animals than other organisms, this makes fungal diseases very difficult to treat. Plant diseases caused by fungi include rusts, smuts, and leaf, root, and stem rots, and may cause severe damage to crops. However, a number of fungi, in particular the yeasts, are important "model organisms" for studying problems in genetics and molecular biology. Types of fungi Fungi are subdivided on the basis of their life cycles, the presence or structure of their fruiting body and the arrangement of and type of spores (reproductive or distributional cells) they produce. The three major groups of fungi are: 1. multicellular filamentous moulds macroscopic filamentous fungi that form large fruiting bodies. Sometimes the group is referred to as ‘mushrooms’, but the mushroom is just the part of the fungus we see above ground which is also known as the fruiting body. single celled microscopic yeasts Multicellular filamentous moulds Moulds are made up of very fine threads (hyphae). Hyphae grow at the tip and divide repeatedly along their length creating long and branching chains. The hyphae keep growing and intertwining until they form a network of threads called a mycelium. Digestive enzymes are secreted from the hyphal tip. These enzymes break down the organic matter found in the soil into smaller molecules which are used by the fungus as food. Some of the hyphal branches grow into the air and spores form on these aerial branches. Spores are specialized structures with a protective coat that shields them from harsh environmental conditions such as drying out and high temperatures. They are so small that between 500 – 1000 could fit on a pin head. Spores are similar to seeds as they enable the fungus to reproduce. Wind, rain or insects spread spores. They eventually land in new habitats and if conditions are right, they start to grow and produce new hyphae. As fungi can’t move they use spores to find a new environment where there are fewer competing organisms. 2. Macroscopic filamentous fungi Macroscopic filamentous fungi also grow by producing a mycelium below ground. They differ from moulds because they produce visible fruiting bodies (commonly known as mushrooms or toadstools) that hold the spores. The fruiting body is made up of tightly packed hyphae which divide to produce the different parts of the fungal structure, for example the cap and the stem. Gills underneath the cap are covered with spores and a 10 cm diameter cap can produce up to 100 million spores per hour. 3. Yeasts Yeasts are small, lemon-shaped single cells that are about the same size as red blood cells. They multiply by budding a daughter cell off from the original parent cell. Scars can be seen on the surface of the yeast cell where buds have broken off. Yeasts such as Saccharomyces, play an important role in the production of bread and in brewing. Yeasts are also one of the most widely used model organisms for genetic studies, for example in cancer research. Other species of yeast such asCandida are opportunistic pathogens and cause infections in individuals who do not have a healthy immune system.

Fungi

Fungi

Life on Earth 008 - Fungi Paul Andersen surveys the Kingdom Fungi. He starts with a brief description of the fungi phylogeny. He describes some of the major characteristics of fungi; heterotrophy, cell walls of chitin, hyphae, sessile. He describes the characteristics of five major phyla of fungi, ascomycota, basidiomycota, chytridiomycota, glomeromycota and zygomycota. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License

11 Strange Fungi Explained

11 Strange Fungi Explained

You might see some of these 11 bizarre and creepy looking fungi around the world here are what they're called and if they are edible. Subscribe for new videos Monday Wednesday and Friday! 6. The Bitter Oyster Mushroom This mushroom is found in the local regions of North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia where it grows in clusters located mostly on oak, birch, and beech trees. Bitter oysters happen to be one of the manly bioluminescent mushrooms that exist and it’s only the eastern North American strain that is able to glow, unlike the Pacific strain. It’s thanks to this species of mushroom that the term foxfire was coined by the early settlers. Fun fact: This mushroom is classified as being bioremediation as it has the power to absorb the toxins from environmental pollutants and is able to break down lignin. 5. Stemonitis fusca This is a species of slime mold that isn’t actually a fungus, however, it was at one point that is was classified in the same kingdom. Sometimes they’re still grouped together as a means of convenience. These eukaryotic organisms are able to live as single cells but combine into multicellular reproductive structures. This type of slime mold can be found in small groups forming on dead wood. It’s recognized by its slender stalks that hold up the sporangia that only grows to a height of around 6 to 20 millimeters tall. There’s over 900 documented species of slime mold that exist all over the world. 4. The Blue Milk Mushroom The more common name for this edible mushroom is the indigo milk cap and it can be found in several different areas of the world including East Asia, Central America, and eastern North America, which is why they’re most often found in Chinese, Mexican, and Guatemalan food dishes. When the mushroom is cut open or broken it leaks an indigo milk or as it’s referred to “latex” and the mushroom begins to change into a green color once exposed to oxygen. This species of mushroom is definitely considered to be one of the most beautiful, yet, weird species in the world. 3. The False Morel Mushroom Also known as the brain mushroom and you can see why the false morel will definitely prove to be fatal if ingested raw and not properly prepared. A good number of people have died. False morels are actually considered as a famous delicacy in areas such as Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, and in the regions of the Great Lakes of North America. In certain places in the world, it’s illegal to sell, in others, it must come with a warning label. The safety of its consumption has been recently brought into question as it’s been noted that even if properly prepared, toxins in the mushroom can still remain and quite a number of people have developed acute toxicity. So, there could very well be some long-term health effects related to this mushroom. 2. The Bleeding Tooth Fungus Hydnellum peckii is an interesting looking inedible mushroom that is definitely not something you want to try and eat. What you see in the following photo is a young bleeding tooth fungus that is secreting a red liquid. It’s not blood or anything, even though it does resemble it. It’s really just a liquid that is filled with anticoagulant properties. That means it’s capable of preventing blood clots. When the fungus ages it turns brown and looks unrecognizable compared to its youth. They’re most common in North America but are also found in other parts of the world. 1. The Amanita muscaria More commonly referred to as the fly agaric, this mushroom is very famous for its psychoactive properties. Not only that, but this mushroom is also considered to be highly poisonous, that is, if it’s eaten raw and not properly detoxified first. Careful, though, there’s no antidote but there are several methods as far as treatment goes. Under several different laws and ordinances, the Amanita muscaria is illegal in The United Kingdom, Australia, and The Netherlands. This fungus also happens to be quite famous in pop culture what with being featured in the Super Mario Bros. franchise and in the Alice and Wonderland book to name a few.

10 Fantastic Fungi Superpowers

10 Fantastic Fungi Superpowers

Join Hank Green to learn ten weird, scary, and amazing things fungi can do! Hosted by: Hank Green ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Justin Ove, Accalia Elementia, Kathy & Tim Philip, Kevin Bealer, Justin Lentz, Fatima Iqbal, Thomas J., Chris Peters, Tim Curwick, Lucy McGlasson, Andreas Heydeck, Will and Sonja Marple, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Charles George, Christopher Collins, and Patrick D. Ashmore. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: Magic Mushrooms http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/drug-profiles/mushrooms#medical http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/psilocybin.asp http://science.howstuffworks.com/magic-mushroom6.htm Ergot Poisoning http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/witches-curse-clues-evidence/1501/ http://www.britannica.com/science/alkaloid Zombie Ants: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fungus-makes-zombie-ants/ http://news.psu.edu/story/323688/2014/08/22/research/zombie-ant-fungi-know-brains-their-hosts http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/603640 Medicinal Fungi: https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Penicillium http://herbarium.usu.edu/fungi/funfacts/penicillin.htm http://www.smw.ch/docs/pdf200x/2001/21/smw-09702.pdf http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1003496 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1008990919682 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/the-real-story-behind-the-worlds-first-antibiotic/ The largest fungus: http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20141114-the-biggest-organism-in-the-world http://openjournals.wsu.edu/index.php/pnwfungi/article/view/1075 http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/x03-065#.VxVSV5MrK9s The fastest fungus: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0003237 http://eol.org/pages/38244/details http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/TUTORIAL/GUNS/GUNBLST.html http://www.britannica.com/science/Pilobolus-fungus-genus The deadliest fungi: http://www.britannica.com/list/7-of-the-worlds-most-poisonous-mushrooms http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+7755 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521283/ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040402001008249 Cheesy fungi: http://phys.org/news/2015-09-life-domesticated-cheese-making-fungi.html http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bit.260180706/pdf http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/roquefort-cheese/ Boozy fungi: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/yeast-fermentation-and-the-making-of-beer-14372813 http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/a-sip-for-the-ancestors-the-true-story-of-civilizations-stumbling-debt-to-beer-and-fungus/ https://www.wyeastlab.com/he-yeast-fundamentals.cfm

Cordyceps: attack of the killer fungi - Planet Earth Attenborough BBC wildlife

Cordyceps: attack of the killer fungi - Planet Earth Attenborough BBC wildlife

Want more natural history and wildlife videos? Visit the official BBC Earth channel: http://bit.ly/BBCEarthWW BBC Earth The BBC Earth YouTube channel is home to over 50 years-worth of the best animal videos from the BBC archive. With three new videos released every week there’s something for all nature loves from astounding animal behaviour to beautiful imagery. Click here to find our more: http://bit.ly/BBCEarthWW Sir David Attenborough and the Planet Earth team discover the weird world of the Cordyceps; killer fungi that invades the body of an insect to grow and diminish the insect population. Fascinating animal and wildlife video from the BBC epic natural world masterpiece 'Planet Earth'.

Natures Great Decomposers | Molds and Fungus Documentary - NatGeo TV

Natures Great Decomposers | Molds and Fungus Documentary - NatGeo TV

Molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species where the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance, especially on food. The network of these tubular branching hyphae, called a mycelium, is considered a single organism. The hyphae are generally transparent, so the mycelium appears like very fine, fluffy white threads over the surface. Cross-walls (septa) may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, genetically identical nuclei. The dusty texture of many molds is caused by profuse production of asexual spores (conidia) formed by differentiation at the ends of hyphae. The mode of formation and shape of these spores is traditionally used to classify molds. Many of these spores are colored, making the fungus much more obvious to the human eye at this stage in its life-cycle. Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mold

When Giant Fungi Ruled

When Giant Fungi Ruled

420 million years ago, a giant feasted on the dead, growing slowly into the largest living thing on land. It belonged to an unlikely group of pioneers that ultimately made life on land possible -- the fungi. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Thanks to Franz Anthony of 252mya.com and Jon Hughes of jfhdigital.com for their tremendous reconstructions of Prototaxites. Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - https://twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: http://www.davidmoore.org.uk/21st_Century_Guidebook_to_Fungi_PLATINUM/REPRINT_collection/Hueber_Prototaxites2001.pdf https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/04/070425-fungus-fossil_2.html http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/boj.12389/abstract http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/07/070423.fungus.shtml https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/devonian/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2880155/ https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-662-46011-5_10.pdf http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/devonian/devonian.php https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/artful-amoeba/the-world-s-largest-mining-operation-is-run-by-fungi/ http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/7/4/574 https://books.google.com/books?id=gSAufF5IUKoC&pg=PA233&lpg=PA233&dq=prototaxites+1843&source=bl&ots=G_xulZhwpL&sig=NfRL10g81UGZJ-SQxEV8iNCb88E&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjpsYrenq3XAhWL6IMKHd5zBosQ6AEINDAC#v=onepage&q=prototaxites%201843&f=false https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684921 https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/boj.12389 https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/oldest-plant-fossil-found http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2818.1873.tb04672.x/abstract http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/lichens/lichenfr.html http://science.sciencemag.org/content/293/5532/1129 http://www.newsweek.com/fossilized-fungi-worlds-oldest-land-fossil-432797 http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20151205-one-amazing-substance-allowed-life-to-thrive-on-land http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00397.x/abstract http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3852/13-390?journalCode=umyc20 https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/artful-amoeba/were-weirdo-ediacarans-really-lichens-fungi-and-slime-molds/ https://www.nature.com/articles/nature01884 http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_9079000/9079963.stm https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/24/1/55/206443/new-evidence-for-land-plants-from-the-lower-middle?redirectedFrom=fulltext http://science.psu.edu/news-and-events/2001-news/Hedges8-2001.htm https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article/180/4/452/2416561 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/boj.12389/abstract https://qz.com/630770/a-scientist-identified-the-oldest-land-fossil-ever-and-realized-it-was-eating-something-even-older/ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034666713000948 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/3427499.stm ~419mya http://horseshoecrab.org/research/sites/default/files/P.Shelden%201990.pdf https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC333434/ https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/30/5/391/192367/first-steps-on-land-arthropod-trackways-in?redirectedFrom=fulltext https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/geological-magazine/article/non-marine-arthropod-traces-from-the-subaerial-ordovician-borrowdale-volcanic-group-english-lake-district/A203763DC4AEA05D731966614AB2DE30 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420932 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263080406_Rotted_wood-alga-fungus_The_history_and_life_of_Prototaxites_Dawson_1859 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/paleontological-society-special-publications/article/solution-to-the-enigma-of-prototaxites/F153A7007C25269D6C58734E8FF96F18 https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2396361.pdf https://www.academia.edu/891357/Early_terrestrial_animals_evolution_and_uncertainty https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4094847.pdf

Stoned Ape & Fungal Intelligence - Paul Stamets

Stoned Ape & Fungal Intelligence - Paul Stamets

Paul Stamets is a mycologist, author and advocate of bioremediation and medicinal fungi. In this animation he describes the incredible properties of fungi as well as an overview of how mushrooms could have played a massive role in the evolution of human consciousness. Please share/like/subscribe. If you want to see more animations like this, please support us on Patreon so we can spend more time animating high quality content. Your generosity means the world! https://www.patreon.com/AfterSkool Full conversation between Paul and Joe Rogan can be heard here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPqWstVnRjQ Paul did want to issue one correction: Folks, On this broadcast, I made a misstatement. Although the divergence of basidiomycota is estimated to be as far back at 1.2 billion years ago, the fossil, Gondwanagaricities magnificus is estimated to be more than 100 million years old. "Molecular clock estimates suggest the divergence of the Basidiomycota around 500 Ma to 1.2 billion years [26] and G. magnificus establishes the earliest calibration point so far for the Agaricales, with a new minimum age of 113–120 Ma.” Source: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0178327 Special thanks to BioGraphic for the amazing fungal footage. Check out their channel https://www.youtube.com/user/bioGraphicMagazine

Introduction to Fungus

Introduction to Fungus

Class notes

Top Videa -  loading... Změnit krajinu
Načíst dalších 10 videí
 
 
Sorry, You can't play this video
00:00/00:00
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
CLOSE
CLOSE
CLOSE