Chitinozoan biozonation in the Arenig Series of Wales

Chitinozoan biozonation in the Arenig Series of Wales

By Chloé E. A. Amberg, Thijs R. A. Vandenbroucke, Stewart G. Molyneux, Jean-François Ghienne and Philippe Razin Recorded at the 59th Annual Meeting of the Palaeontological Association, Cardiff.

Chitinozoan - Video Learning - WizScience.com

Chitinozoan - Video Learning - WizScience.com

"Chitinozoa" are a taxon of flask-shaped, organic walled marine microfossils produced by an as yet unknown animal. Common from the Ordovician to Devonian periods , the millimetre-scale organisms are abundant in almost all types of marine sediment across the globe. This wide distribution, and their rapid pace of evolution, makes them valuable biostratigraphic markers. Their bizarre form has made classification and ecological reconstruction difficult. Since their discovery in 1931, suggestions of protist, plant, and fungal affinities have all been entertained. The organisms have been better understood as improvements in microscopy facilitated the study of their fine structure, and there is mounting evidence to suggest that they represent either the eggs or juvenile stage of a marine animal. The ecology of chitinozoa is also open to speculation; some may have floated in the water column, where others may have attached themselves to other organisms. Most species were particular about their living conditions, and tend to be most common in specific paleoenvironments. Their abundance also varied with the seasons. Chitinozoa range in length from around 50 to 2000 micrometres. They appear dark to almost opaque when viewed under an optical microscope. External ornamentation is often preserved on the surface of the fossils, in the form of hairs, loops or protrusions, which are sometimes as large as the chamber itself. The range and complexity of ornament increased with time, against a backdrop of decreasing organism size. The earliest Ordovician species were large and smooth-walled; by the mid-Ordovician a large and expanding variety of ornament, and of hollow appendages, was evident. While shorter appendages are generally solid, larger protrusions tend to be hollow, with some of the largest displaying a spongy internal structure. However, even hollow appendages leave no mark on the inner wall of the organisms: this may suggest that they were secreted or attached from the outside. There is some debate about the number of layers present in the organisms' walls: up to three layers have been reported, with the internal wall often ornamented; some specimens only appear to display one. The multitude of walls may indeed reflect the construction of the organism, but could be a result of the preservational process. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitinozoan, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.

Microfossils Pt 1A

Microfossils Pt  1A

Non-calcareous microfosssils.: acritarchs, chitinozoa, scolecodonts, dinoflagellates, tintinnids, calpionellids, chaetognaths, conodonts

Palynology - Video Learning - WizScience.com

Palynology - Video Learning - WizScience.com

"Palynology" is the "study of dust" or "particles that are strewn". A classic palynologist analyses particulate samples collected from the air, from water, or from deposits including sediments of any age. The condition and identification of those particles, organic and inorganic, give the palynologist clues to the life, environment, and energetic conditions that produced them. The term is sometimes narrowly used to refer to a subset of the discipline, which is defined as "the study of microscopic objects of macromolecular organic composition , not capable of dissolution in hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acids". It is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, orbicules, dinocysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. Palynology does not include diatoms, foraminiferans or other organisms with siliceous or calcareous exoskeletons. Palynology is an interdisciplinary science and is a branch of earth science and biological science , particularly plant science . Stratigraphical palynology is a branch of micropalaeontology and paleobotany, which studies fossil palynomorphs from the Precambrian to the Holocene. The earliest reported observations of pollen under a microscope are likely to have been in the 1640s by the English botanist Nehemiah Grew, who described pollen and the stamen, and correctly predicted that pollen is required for sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palynology, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.

Palynology

Palynology

An explanation of palynology. All pictures are from Google. “Paleoclimatology”: https://youtu.be/to7lxbCDBiE “Index Fossils”: https://youtu.be/TUYaE0IZYjc “Sporopollenin”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/sporopollenin “Campanian to paleocene spore and pollen assemblages of Seymour Island, Antarctica”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/003466679090061M “The human impact imprint on modern pollen spectra of the Maya lands”: http://boletinsgm.igeolcu.unam.mx/bsgm/vols/epoca04/7001/%284%29Franco.pdf “Identification of a Sinagua Agricultural Field by Aerial Thermography, Soil Chemistry, Pollen/Plant Analysis, and Archaeology”: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/american-antiquity/article/div-classtitleidentification-of-a-sinagua-agricultural-field-by-aerial-thermography-soil-chemistry-pollenplant-analysis-and-archaeologydiv/C3E163884281DB2CDD9486E56ECF6748 “The vegetation history of East-Central Anatolia in relation to archaeology: the Eski Acıgöl pollen evidence compared with the Near Eastern environment”: https://ugp.rug.nl/Palaeohistoria/article/view/25111 “Primitive pollen cone structure in Upper Pennsylvanian (Stephanian) Walchian conifers”: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-paleontology/article/primitive-pollen-cone-structure-in-upper-pennsylvanian-stephanian-walchian-conifers/F5D27C0A683A702B585A746EBE97C210 “The microfossil record of early land plants: advances in understanding of early terrestrialization, 1970-1984”: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/309/1138/167 “Sporormiella fungal spores, a palynological means of detecting herbivore density”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018206001015 “Pollen, Tapetum and Orbicule Development in Modiolastrum malvifolium (Malvaceae)”: https://academic.oup.com/aob/article/99/4/755/2769327 “Palynological diversity and major evolutionary trends in Cyperaceae”: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00606-008-0111-2 “Palynological Implication to the Systematic of the Genus Dioscorea in Meghalaya, North East India”: http://www.ijpab.com/form/2018%20Volume%206,%20issue%201/IJPAB-2018-6-1-94-100.pdf “The remarkable genus Coptosapelta (Rubiaceae): pollen and orbicule morphology and systematic implications”: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10265-003-0128-0 “Systematic palynology in Ebenaceae with focus on Ebenoideae: Morphological diversity and character evolution”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034666708001462 “Phylogenetic evaluation of pollen and orbicule morphology in Rosaceae tribe Neillieae (subfamily Amygdaloideae)”: https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article/183/3/439/3092414 “Atlas of modern dinoflagellate cyst distribution based on 2405 data points”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034666712001996?via%3Dihub “Reconstruction of sea-surface conditions at middle to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379104002112?via%3Dihub “Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of climatic and oceanographic changes during the past 40 kyr in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California”: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2005PA001251 “30 000 years of productivity and salinity variations in the late Quaternary Cariaco Basin revealed by dinoflagellate cysts”: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2009.00095.x “Late Quaternary environmental changes and latitudinal shifts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as recorded by dinoflagellate cysts from offshore Chile (41°S)”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379110000119?via%3Dihub “Late Quaternary climatic and oceanographic changes in the Northeast Pacific as recorded by dinoflagellate cysts from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico)”: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/palo.20019 “A merciful death for the “earliest bilaterian,” Vernanimalcula”: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1525-142X.2012.00562.x

An outstanding upper Katian (Upper Ordovician) fossil assemblage from Portugal

An outstanding upper Katian (Upper Ordovician) fossil assemblage from Portugal

By Jorge Colmenar, Sofia Pereira, Artur A. Sá and Carlos M. da Silva Recorded at the 59th Annual Meeting of the Palaeontological Association, Cardiff.

Dinocyst - Video Learning - WizScience.com

Dinocyst - Video Learning - WizScience.com

"Dinocysts" or "dinoflagellate cysts" are typically 15 to 100 µm in diameter and produced by around 15-20% of living dinoflagellates as a dormant, zygotic stage of their lifecycle, which can accumulate in the sediments as microfossils. "Organic-walled dinocysts" are often resistant and made out of dinosporin. There are also calcareous dinoflagellate cysts and siliceous dinoflagellate cysts. Many books provide overviews on dinocysts. The first person to recognize fossil dinoflagellates was Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, who reported his discovery in a paper presented to the Berlin Academy of Sciences in July 1836. He had observed clearly tabulate dinoflagellates in thin flakes of Cretaceous flint and considered those dinoflagellates to have been silicified. Along with them, and of comparable size, were spheroidal to ovoidal bodies bearing an array of spines or tubes of variable character. Ehrenberg interpreted these as being originally siliceous and thought them to be desmids , placing them within his own Recent desmid genus "Xanthidium". Though summaries of Ehrenberg's work appeared earlier, it was not published in full until 1837 or 1838; the date is uncertain. A first relation between dinoflagellate thecae and cysts was made through morphological comparison of both by Bill Evitt and Susan E. Davidson. Further evidence came from detailed culture studies of dinoflagellate cysts by David Wall and Barrie Dale at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the sixties. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinocyst, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.

When fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of morphological evolution

When fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of morphological evolution

By Mark N. Puttick and Gavin H. Thomas Recorded at the 59th Annual Meeting of the Palaeontological Association, Cardiff.

Hvar Vid3 Macro and Microfossils

Hvar Vid3 Macro and Microfossils

Bioturbation in the Plymouth Sound, UK

Bioturbation in the Plymouth Sound, UK

Bioturbation is the mixing of marine sediment and other particles by animals living on the seabed. The process is the marine equivalent to the work undertaken by ants on land, as first noted by Charles Darwin. In the sea, it has a major role in the way that the chemical cycles work, affecting the ability of the ocean to take up CO2 from the atmosphere. In Plymouth Marine Laboratory, we are investigating these processes alongside climate change stressors, like ocean warming, ocean acidification and hypoxia. See more of our work on Twiter (@ DrAnaQueiros) and on Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/MarineLifeSupportSystems)

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