The #Chitinozoans are some of the most interesting paleo mysteries for they are literally just teeny tiny capsules. Who knows what they are? Let's find out! __________________________________________________________________ Music: Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education, and research. All video/game content is recorded and edited under fair use rights for reasons of commentary and social satire. I do not own the images, music, or video used in this video, all rights and credit goes to the original owners. __________________________________________________________________ Our Links - Like and Subscribe for more videos! ►Google+: plus.google.com/u/0/105232556694055868870 ►Blog: expeditiondiscoveryguild.blogspot.com ►Email: email@example.com ►Website: expeditiondiscovery.weebly.com ►Facebook: facebook.com/ExpeditionDG/ ►Twitter: twitter.com/EDGEinthewild ►Patreon: patreon.com/EDGElive ►Instagram: @edgeonthetrail ►Snapchat: @edguild __________________________________________________________________ #microfossils #Graptolites #Microbiology __________________________________________________________________
"Chitinozoa" are a taxon of flask-shaped, organic walled marine microfossils produced by an as yet unknown animal. Common from the Ordovician to Devonian periods , the millimetre-scale organisms are abundant in almost all types of marine sediment across the globe. This wide distribution, and their rapid pace of evolution, makes them valuable biostratigraphic markers. Their bizarre form has made classification and ecological reconstruction difficult. Since their discovery in 1931, suggestions of protist, plant, and fungal affinities have all been entertained. The organisms have been better understood as improvements in microscopy facilitated the study of their fine structure, and there is mounting evidence to suggest that they represent either the eggs or juvenile stage of a marine animal. The ecology of chitinozoa is also open to speculation; some may have floated in the water column, where others may have attached themselves to other organisms. Most species were particular about their living conditions, and tend to be most common in specific paleoenvironments. Their abundance also varied with the seasons. Chitinozoa range in length from around 50 to 2000 micrometres. They appear dark to almost opaque when viewed under an optical microscope. External ornamentation is often preserved on the surface of the fossils, in the form of hairs, loops or protrusions, which are sometimes as large as the chamber itself. The range and complexity of ornament increased with time, against a backdrop of decreasing organism size. The earliest Ordovician species were large and smooth-walled; by the mid-Ordovician a large and expanding variety of ornament, and of hollow appendages, was evident. While shorter appendages are generally solid, larger protrusions tend to be hollow, with some of the largest displaying a spongy internal structure. However, even hollow appendages leave no mark on the inner wall of the organisms: this may suggest that they were secreted or attached from the outside. There is some debate about the number of layers present in the organisms' walls: up to three layers have been reported, with the internal wall often ornamented; some specimens only appear to display one. The multitude of walls may indeed reflect the construction of the organism, but could be a result of the preservational process. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitinozoan, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
By Chloé E. A. Amberg, Thijs R. A. Vandenbroucke, Stewart G. Molyneux, Jean-François Ghienne and Philippe Razin Recorded at the 59th Annual Meeting of the Palaeontological Association, Cardiff.
Non-calcareous microfosssils.: acritarchs, chitinozoa, scolecodonts, dinoflagellates, tintinnids, calpionellids, chaetognaths, conodonts
"Palynology" is the "study of dust" or "particles that are strewn". A classic palynologist analyses particulate samples collected from the air, from water, or from deposits including sediments of any age. The condition and identification of those particles, organic and inorganic, give the palynologist clues to the life, environment, and energetic conditions that produced them. The term is sometimes narrowly used to refer to a subset of the discipline, which is defined as "the study of microscopic objects of macromolecular organic composition , not capable of dissolution in hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acids". It is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, orbicules, dinocysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. Palynology does not include diatoms, foraminiferans or other organisms with siliceous or calcareous exoskeletons. Palynology is an interdisciplinary science and is a branch of earth science and biological science , particularly plant science . Stratigraphical palynology is a branch of micropalaeontology and paleobotany, which studies fossil palynomorphs from the Precambrian to the Holocene. The earliest reported observations of pollen under a microscope are likely to have been in the 1640s by the English botanist Nehemiah Grew, who described pollen and the stamen, and correctly predicted that pollen is required for sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palynology, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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An explanation of palynology. All pictures are from Google. “Paleoclimatology”: https://youtu.be/to7lxbCDBiE “Index Fossils”: https://youtu.be/TUYaE0IZYjc “Sporopollenin”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/sporopollenin “Campanian to paleocene spore and pollen assemblages of Seymour Island, Antarctica”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/003466679090061M “The human impact imprint on modern pollen spectra of the Maya lands”: http://boletinsgm.igeolcu.unam.mx/bsgm/vols/epoca04/7001/%284%29Franco.pdf “Identification of a Sinagua Agricultural Field by Aerial Thermography, Soil Chemistry, Pollen/Plant Analysis, and Archaeology”: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/american-antiquity/article/div-classtitleidentification-of-a-sinagua-agricultural-field-by-aerial-thermography-soil-chemistry-pollenplant-analysis-and-archaeologydiv/C3E163884281DB2CDD9486E56ECF6748 “The vegetation history of East-Central Anatolia in relation to archaeology: the Eski Acıgöl pollen evidence compared with the Near Eastern environment”: https://ugp.rug.nl/Palaeohistoria/article/view/25111 “Primitive pollen cone structure in Upper Pennsylvanian (Stephanian) Walchian conifers”: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-paleontology/article/primitive-pollen-cone-structure-in-upper-pennsylvanian-stephanian-walchian-conifers/F5D27C0A683A702B585A746EBE97C210 “The microfossil record of early land plants: advances in understanding of early terrestrialization, 1970-1984”: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/309/1138/167 “Sporormiella fungal spores, a palynological means of detecting herbivore density”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018206001015 “Pollen, Tapetum and Orbicule Development in Modiolastrum malvifolium (Malvaceae)”: https://academic.oup.com/aob/article/99/4/755/2769327 “Palynological diversity and major evolutionary trends in Cyperaceae”: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00606-008-0111-2 “Palynological Implication to the Systematic of the Genus Dioscorea in Meghalaya, North East India”: http://www.ijpab.com/form/2018%20Volume%206,%20issue%201/IJPAB-2018-6-1-94-100.pdf “The remarkable genus Coptosapelta (Rubiaceae): pollen and orbicule morphology and systematic implications”: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10265-003-0128-0 “Systematic palynology in Ebenaceae with focus on Ebenoideae: Morphological diversity and character evolution”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034666708001462 “Phylogenetic evaluation of pollen and orbicule morphology in Rosaceae tribe Neillieae (subfamily Amygdaloideae)”: https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article/183/3/439/3092414 “Atlas of modern dinoflagellate cyst distribution based on 2405 data points”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034666712001996?via%3Dihub “Reconstruction of sea-surface conditions at middle to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379104002112?via%3Dihub “Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of climatic and oceanographic changes during the past 40 kyr in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California”: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2005PA001251 “30 000 years of productivity and salinity variations in the late Quaternary Cariaco Basin revealed by dinoflagellate cysts”: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2009.00095.x “Late Quaternary environmental changes and latitudinal shifts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as recorded by dinoflagellate cysts from offshore Chile (41°S)”: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379110000119?via%3Dihub “Late Quaternary climatic and oceanographic changes in the Northeast Pacific as recorded by dinoflagellate cysts from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico)”: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/palo.20019 “A merciful death for the “earliest bilaterian,” Vernanimalcula”: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1525-142X.2012.00562.x
This video shows a preview of our upcoming micropaleontology keychain. Designed to look like a drill core, each layer depicts microfossils from one geologic epoch The layers and microfossils (not all of which are shown in this video) are as follows: 1) Date: 0Ma Holocene -Dinoflagellate -Diatom -Coccosphere (Emiliania huxleyi) 2) Date: 2Ma Pleistocene -Diatom (pennate form) -Discoaster -Foraminiferan (Foram) 3) Date: 56Ma Paleocene / Eocene (PETM) -Coccolith (Braarudosphaera) -Spore -Dinoflagellate (Apectodinium) 4) Date: 66Ma Early (Lower) Paleocene (immediately post-Yucatan -Diatom (2x) -Fern Spore 5) Date: 67Ma Late (Upper) Crtetaceous -Silicoflagellate -Coccolith -Foraminiferan 6) Date: 165Ma Late Jurassic -Foraminiferan -Radiolarian -Diatom 7) Date: 220Ma Late Triassic -Coccolith (Crucirhabdus primulus) -Dinocyst -Conodont 8) Date: 390Ma Middle Devonian -Lycopsid Spore -Insect Wing -Dacryoconarid 9) Date: 480Ma Early Ordovician -Land plant spore -Chitinozoan -Ostracod 10) Date: 520Ma Cambrian (series 2) -Radiolarian (spherical) -Mollusc Shell -Conodont 11) Date: 600Ma Ediacaran -Putative Embryo -Sponge Spicule -Cloudina parts 12) Date: 1500Ma Mesoproterozoic -Acritarch -Cyanobacteria / Stromatolite
zoom into a previous simulation to watch some early fusions in more detail. Internal food levels are colorcoded [numerical values are arbitrary]. In the background image, the red channel is solid food, which cannot be taken up by the mycelial network. The blue channel is diffusible and communication means of the mycelium, it also solves the solid red pixels into the green diffusible food, which is absorbed by the mycelium
Content of video What is Palynology? What is palynomorphs? Application of Palynology in Archaeology Application of Palynology in Biostratigraphy and geochronology Application of Palynology in Palaeoecology and climate change Application of Palynology in Organic palynofacies studies Application of Palynology in Geothermal alteration studies Application of Palynology in Limnology studies Application of Palynology in Allergy studies Application of Palynology in Forensics Palynology is defined as the “study of microscopic objects of macromolecular organic composition”. It is the science that studies fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, orbicules, dinocysts etc. together with particulate organic matter (POM) found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. Palynomorphs are broadly defined as organic-walled microfossils between 5 - 500 micrometres in size. They are extracted from sedimentary rocks and sediment cores both physically and chemically. Palynomorphs include both plant and animal structures that are microscopic in size. In Taxonomy and evolutionary studies : Taxonomy and evolutionary studies Involves the use of pollen morphological characters as source of taxonomic data to delimit plant species under same family or genus. Pollen apertural status is frequently used for differential sorting or finding similarities between species of the same taxa. This is also called Palynotaxonomy. In Archaeology : Archaeological Palynology examines human uses of plants in the past. This can help determine seasonality of site occupation, presence or absence of agricultural practices or products, and 'plant-related activity areas' within an archaeological context. Biostratigraphy and geochronology: Geologists use palynological studies in biostratigraphy to correlate strata and determine the relative age of a given bed. Palaeoecology and climate change: Palynology can be used to reconstruct past vegetation (land plants) and marine and Freshwater phytoplankton communities, and so infer past environmental and palaeoclimatic conditions. In Organic palynofacies studies: Organic palynofacies studies examine the preservation of the particulate organic matter and palynomorphs provides information on the depositional environment of sediments. In Geothermal alteration studies: Geothermal alteration studies examine the colour of Palynomorphs extracted from rocks to give the thermal alteration and maturation of sedimentary sequences, which provides estimates of maximum palaeotemperatures. Limnology studies: Freshwater palynomorphs and animal and plant fragments can be used to study past lake levels and long term climate change. Forensic palynology: the study of pollen and other palynomorphs for evidence at a crime scene. In Allergy studies: Studies of the geographic distribution and seasonal production of pollen, can help sufferers of allergies such as hay fever. Like the Video Comment Share And Subscribe to “Botany optional Channel for UPSC”