A review of various forms of passive and active transport including facilitated diffusion (uniporters), symporters, and exchangers; a discussion of primary and secondary active transport. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/membranes-and-transport/bulk-transport/v/endocytosis-phagocytosis-and-pinocytosis?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/membranes-and-transport/active-transport/v/electrochemical-gradient-and-secondary-active-transport?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Membrane Transport in Cells Symport, Antiport and Cotransport (Animation)
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Uniport, cotransport, symport, antiport
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Video is an animated explanation of Cotransport mechanism. Co transport is the name of a process in which two substances are simultaneously transported across a membrane by one protein, or protein complex which does not have ATPase activity. When both substances are transported in the same direction the transport protein is known as a symport .
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Cell transport: permeability of the cell membrane to various molecules, types of ion channels and transporters. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia This video and other related images/videos (in HD) are available for instant download licensing here : https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/all-animations/cell-molecular-biology-genetics-videos ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Voice by: Ashley Fleming All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. All animal cells are enclosed in a plasma membrane, which consists of 2 layers of phospholipids. The hydrophobic nature of the cell membrane makes it intrinsically permeable to small NON-polar and uncharged polar molecules, but NON-permeable to large polar molecules and CHARGED particles. Charged particles, such as ions, must use special channels to move through the membrane. Transport of a molecule can be passive or active. PASSIVE transport does NOT require energy input because it moves the molecules “DOWNHILL”, for example, from HIGHER to LOWER concentration. ACTIVE transport, on the other hand, moves the molecules AGAINST their gradients and therefore requires ENERGY expenditure. Ion channels permit PASSIVE transport of ions. These are transmembrane proteins that form PORES for ions to pass through. Most ion channels are SPECIFIC for a certain type of ion. Ion channels can be classified by how they change their OPEN-CLOSED state in RESPONSE to different factors of the environment. Common types of ion channels include: - LEAK channels: these channels are almost always OPEN allowing more or less steady flow of ions; examples are potassium and sodium leak channels in neurons. - LIGAND-gated ion channels: these channels OPEN upon BINDING of a LIGAND. They are most commonly found at synapses, where neurons communicate via chemical messages, or neurotransmitters. An example is the GABA receptor, a chloride channel located on POST-synaptic neurons. It OPENS upon binding to GABA, a neurotransmitter released by the PRE-synaptic neuron, and allows chloride ions to flow into the cell. - VOLTAGE-gated ion channels: these channels are REGULATED by membrane voltage. They OPEN at some values of the membrane potential and CLOSE at others. These are the channels that underlie ACTION POTENTIALS in neurons and cardiac muscles. ACTIVE transport of ions is carried out by ion transporters, or ion PUMPS. These are transmembrane proteins that PUMP ions AGAINST their concentration gradient using cellular ENERGY, such as ATP. Most notable example is the sodium-potassium pump which maintains the resting potential in neurons by pumping two potassium IN and three sodium OUT of the cell. Another type of ion transporters, known as SECONDARY transporters, do NOT use ATP directly. Instead, they move ONE ion DOWN its concentration gradient and use THAT ENERGY to POWER the transport of a SECOND ion. Symporters transport the two ions in the same direction, while antiporters pump the coupled molecule in the OPPOSITE direction.