Chemotherapeutic agents

Chemotherapeutic agents

This is a brief overview of chemotherapeutic agents, their mechanism of action, and some related side effects. I created this presentation with Google Slides. Image were created or taken from Wikimedia Commons I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor. ADDITIONAL TAGS: Chemotherapeutic agents Classes of chemical agents used in the treatment of cancer Alkylating agents Antimetabolites Microtubule targeting agents Topoisomerase inhibitors Anthracyclines Monoclonal antibodies Other agents Alkylating agents Attach alkyl groups to DNA, allows cross linking of base pairs, damaging DNA; cell cycle nonspecific Typical alkylating agents: cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, melphalan, busulfan, mechlorethamine, chlorambucil, thiotepa Side effects: myelosuppression drop in WBC, Hb, crit, nausea/vomiting, secondary malignancies, infertility/impaired fertility, hemorrhagic cystitis hematuria, dysuria from direct irritation of bladder by acrolein metabolite Atypical alkylating agents Platinum compounds covalently bind purine DNA bases. Drugs and side effects: cisplatin causes nephrotoxicity and n/v carboplatin causes thrombocytopenia oxaliplatin causes cold sensitivity all cause peripheral neuropathies, paresthesia Nitrosoureas: BCNu, CCNu both cause pulmonary toxicity, phlebitis. CNS Alkylating agents Antimetabolites Microtubule targeting agents Topoisomerase inhibitors Anthracyclines Monoclonal antibodies Other agents Antimetabolites Inhibit DNA replication or repair by mimicking normal cell compounds; S phase specific Folate inhibitor: Methotrexate inhibits DHFR, prevents regeneration of THF Adjuvant leucovorin to protect healthy cells adjuvant Side effect is mucositis, myelosuppression Pyrimidine inhibitors 5-fluorouracil inhibits thymidylate synthetase Bolus dose causes myelosuppression Continuous dose causes GI problems mucositis, diarrhea Synergistic leucovorin potentate mechanism of action synergistic Capecitabine is essentially an oral prodrug for 5-FU Side effect: hand-foot syndrome - palms and hands and feet become red, can start blistering Cytarabine AraC is a DNA chain terminator Side effects: conjunctivitis and cerebellar neural defects The 7 in 7+3 chemotherapy Purine analog is 6-mercaptopurine Alkylating agents Antimetabolites Microtubule targeting agents Topoisomerase inhibitors Anthracyclines Monoclonal antibodies Other agents Microtubule targeting agents These drugs inhibit mitosis, specifically M phase Vinca alkaloids destroy microtubules, obviously preventing their function Vincristine, vinblastine, and vinorelbine Side effects: peripheral neuropathy, myelosuppressive blast others Fatal if given intrathecally Taxanes stabilize microtubules, preventing their function Paclitaxol, docetaxol Side effects: myelosuppression, peripheral neuropathies Hypersensitivity from diluent: Cremophor diluent in paclitaxel Tween80 in docetaxel Avoid hypersenitivity with abraxane, protein-bound paclitaxol particles less sensitivity but more neuropathy Topoisomerase inhibitors Topoisomerase I inhibitors prevent relaxation of supercoiled DNA Topotecan, irinotecan Both have side effect of myelosuppression Irinotecan causes diarrhea: “I ran to the can” Topoisomerase II inhibitors prevent recoiling of DNA after transcription Etoposide, teniposide Both have side effects of myelosuppression, mucositis, secondary malignancies AML Etoposide also causes hypotension Anthracyclines Various mechanisms of action: intercalate DNA, inhibit topo II, generate ROS, perhaps alkylation -rubicins: doxorubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, epirubicin Side effects: biventricular heart failure, necrotic with extravasation The 3 in 7+3 chemotherapy Monoclonal antibodies Origin determined from suffixes: -omab from mouse; -ximab is chimeric cross between human/mouse; -umab is humanized; -mumab is fully human mAb Target Treats: Toxicity Rituximab CD20 lymphoma - Trastuzumab Her-2 breast cancer - Cetuximab EGFR solid tumors initially for colorectal cancer Acneiform rash Bevacizumab VEGF solid tumors initially for colorectal/lung cancers GI perforation, Other chemotherapeutic agents Bleomycin causes lung toxicity Side effects: pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis cough, infiltrates Hormonal therapies Antiestrogens block estrogen stimulation of breast cancer Tamoxifen, fulvestrant, megestrol acetate Aromatase inhibitors block synthesis of estrogen Anastrozole, letrozole Antiandrogens block androgen stimulation of prostate cancer Other targets for prostate cancer are LHRH agonists prevent testosterone production, GnRH antagonist, CYP17 inhibitor

How anticancer drugs work – Molecular mechanism of action of doxorubicin or adriamycin

How anticancer drugs work – Molecular mechanism of action of doxorubicin or adriamycin

The cytotoxic antibiotics are a varied group of drugs that have various mechanisms of action. The group includes the anthracyclines and other drugs including actinomycin, bleomycin, plicamycin, and mitomycin. Doxorubicin and daunorubicin were the first two anthracyclines, and were obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius. Derivatives of these compounds include epirubicin and idarubicin. Other clinically used drugs in the anthracyline group are pirarubicin, aclarubicin, and mitoxantrone. The mechanisms of anthracyclines include: • DNA intercalation (molecules insert between the two strands of DNA) • Iron-mediated generation of highly reactive free radicals that damage cellular molecules • Topoisomerase inhibition • Induction of histone eviction from chromatin that deregulates DNA damage response, epigenome and transcriptome Actinomycin is a complex molecule that intercalates DNA and prevents RNA synthesis. Doxorubicin (INN, AAN, BAN, USAN; trade name Adriamycin; pegylated liposomal form trade name Doxil; nonpegylated liposomal form trade name Myocet), also known as hydroxydaunorubicin and hydroxydaunomycin, is a drug used in cancer chemotherapy and derived by chemical semisynthesis from a bacterial species. It is an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic closely related to the natural product daunomycin and like all anthracyclines, it works by intercalating DNA, with the most serious adverse effect being heart damage. It is commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers, including hematological malignancies (blood cancers, like leukemia and lymphoma), many types of carcinoma (solid tumors) and soft tissue sarcomas. It is often used in combination chemotherapy as a component of various chemotherapy regimens. * Crystal structure provides more accurate structural information but less accurate chemical information (such as bond order, polar contacts etc.). You should be careful about this.

Anthracycline Meaning

Anthracycline Meaning

Video shows what anthracycline means. any of a class of antibiotic, chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer. Anthracycline Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say anthracycline. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary

Anthracyclines for HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer

Anthracyclines for HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer

The continued use of anthracyclines in the adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer is an area that has posed many questions in recent years. Moderator, Debu Tripathy, MD, explains that some physicians are considering abandoning the use of anthracyclines, due to recent clinical trials and the toxicity profile. For more from this discussion, visit http://www.onclive.com/peer-exchange/early-breast-cancer

Anthracycline Chemistry and Biology II Mode of Action, Clinical Aspects and New Drugs Topics in Curr

Anthracycline Chemistry and Biology II Mode of Action, Clinical Aspects and New Drugs Topics in Curr

Anthracyclines - doxorubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, Lang Pharm Cards

Anthracyclines - doxorubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, Lang Pharm Cards

via YouTube Capture

Cancer Drugs - Learn with Visual Mnemonics!

Cancer Drugs - Learn with Visual Mnemonics!

Website: http://VisualLearner.net/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/visuallearnerstudios Twitter: https://twitter.com/VL_Studios Alright...today, we will go over some common classes of drugs used in treating cancer and examples within each class. To remind you of this, this picture is a scene out of the latest sci-fi movie starring my main man...VIN EASEL. The plot?...Vin Easel and his crew battling a giant cancer crab. Vinca alkaloids: Vinblastine, Vincristine First up, are the Vinca alkaloids represented by Vin Easel. VIN BLASTING the crab is VINBLASTINE, and VIN with the CROSS is VINCRISTINE. Antimetabolites - Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Mercaptopurine Next, we have the antimetabolites, represented by the T-Rex. The METH smoking T-REX is METH-O-TREX-ATE, his FLORAL shorts is FLUORO-URACIL, and his MERCEDES CAP is MER-CAP-TOPURINE. *we do not condone smoking meth* Taxanes: Paclitaxel Another class are the Taxanes, represented by the Tax Man. He’s is wearing a PACK of TAXES, which is PAC-LITAXEL. Alkylating Agents - Cyclophosphamide, Carboplatin, Cisplatin, Busulfan Lastly, we have the Alkylating agents, these are represented by the vehicles in the back line. The CYCLONE CYCLER on his PHOSPHATE bike is CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE. The CAR of PLATINUM is CARBOPLATIN, and his SISter car is CIS-PLATIN. The BUS wielding FANS is BUS-UL-FAN. Alright folks, that’s it for this video! To learn more about visual mnemonics and Cancer drugs, including mechanisms of action and side effects, please check out our website at VisualLearner.net. Happy studying!

PARP-inhibitors: A New Generation of Cancer Drugs

PARP-inhibitors: A New Generation of Cancer Drugs

First of new generation of cancer drugs granted European approval A new drug for ovarian cancer, developed by researchers at the University of Cambridge and AstraZeneca, has become the first of new class of drugs, known as PARP-inhibitors, to be granted approval anywhere in the world. The drug, Lynparza, has been granted Marketing Authorisation from the European Commission. http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=cambridgeuniversity

What Is The Drug Dexrazoxane Used For?

What Is The Drug Dexrazoxane Used For?

Zinecard is the trade name for dexrazoxane. Dexrazoxane injection (zinecard) side effects, medical uses dexrazoxane drugbank. Chemocare uses generic drug names in all descriptions of drugs. A review of its use as a cardioprotective agent in dexrazoxane (totect ) fda and approval for the zinecard buy generic hydrochloride online low totect, (dexrazoxane) dosing, indications, interactions. In some cases, health care professionals 15 nov 2015 dexrazoxane injection (zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication treat breast cancer that has spread other parts of body reducing risk and severity problems associated with chemotherapy medicine certain being treated for metastatic. Dexrazoxane indications, side effects, warnings drugs. Dexrazoxane hcl intravenous uses, side effects, interactions dexrazoxane injection (zinecard) medical uses fda approval for hydrochloride national cancer a review of its use cardioprotection during ncbi. Dexrazoxane is used to protect the heart and other tissues from harmful side effects caused by certain cancer each 250 mg vial contains dexrazoxane hydrochloride equivalent as zinecard will always be with cytotoxic drugs, patients should 2 aug 2017 learn about (dexrazoxane) may treat, uses, dosage, effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, related uses reduce risk severity of damage doxorubicin treatment similar [pubchem] food administration has designated an orphan for use in prevention or reduction incidence when this purpose, usually started after you medication damage, jul 2013 information fda approval clinical first dose was given soon (cardioxane, zinecard, a cyclic derivative edetic acid, regardless whether before anthracycline guideline questions 1) routinely further studies performed setting been successfully cardiac toxicity thought cardiotoxic anthracyclines evaluate tissue injury resulting extravasation. Zinecard (dexrazoxane) side effects, interactions, warning rxlist. Infusion over 1 2 hours for three the generic name of drug is dexrazoxane hydrochloride which helps in should be used only when your chemotherapy medscape indication specific dosing totect, zinecard (dexrazoxane), frequency based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications. Googleusercontent search. Dexrazoxane drug information chemocare chemotherapy dexrazoxane. It is also used to treat tissue damage caused by certain cancer medicines that leak from the vein into skin around injection site totect (dexrazoxane) protect heart and other tissues harmful side effects medications. Use of dexrazoxane as a cardioprotectant in patients receiving. Dexrazoxane indications, side effects, warnings drugs dexrazoxane injection medlineplus drug information. Aspx url? Q webcache. The dexrazoxane treatment was given by i. Totect is used in men or dexrazoxane hydrochloride a cardioprotective agent. Totect (dexrazoxane) uses, dosage, side effects drugs tote

Anthracycline-based chemotherapy may elevate myocardial extracellular volumes

Anthracycline-based chemotherapy may elevate myocardial extracellular volumes

William Hundley, MD and Professor of Internal Medicine-Cardiology at Wake Forest University School of Medicine discusses myocardial extracellular volume elevated in cancer survivors treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy compared to cancer-free peers and newly diagnosed and untreated cancer patients: a single-center observational study of the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) and cardio-oncology cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging studies at the American College of Cardiology's 64th Annual Scientific Sessions & Expo. MDLinx Conference Coverage - 64th Annual ACC Scientific Session & Expo: http://www.mdlinx.com/acc-2015/index.cfm MDLinx: http://www.mdlinx.com/ Smartest Doc & Board Exam Prep: http://www.thesmartestdoc.com/ M3 USA: http://usa.m3.com/ Follow MDLinx: Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/MDLinx Twitter - https://twitter.com/MDLinx Google+ - https://plus.google.com/+Mdlinx/

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