Chemotherapeutic agents

Chemotherapeutic agents

This is a brief overview of chemotherapeutic agents, their mechanism of action, and some related side effects. I created this presentation with Google Slides. Image were created or taken from Wikimedia Commons I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor. ADDITIONAL TAGS: Chemotherapeutic agents Classes of chemical agents used in the treatment of cancer Alkylating agents Antimetabolites Microtubule targeting agents Topoisomerase inhibitors Anthracyclines Monoclonal antibodies Other agents Alkylating agents Attach alkyl groups to DNA, allows cross linking of base pairs, damaging DNA; cell cycle nonspecific Typical alkylating agents: cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, melphalan, busulfan, mechlorethamine, chlorambucil, thiotepa Side effects: myelosuppression drop in WBC, Hb, crit, nausea/vomiting, secondary malignancies, infertility/impaired fertility, hemorrhagic cystitis hematuria, dysuria from direct irritation of bladder by acrolein metabolite Atypical alkylating agents Platinum compounds covalently bind purine DNA bases. Drugs and side effects: cisplatin causes nephrotoxicity and n/v carboplatin causes thrombocytopenia oxaliplatin causes cold sensitivity all cause peripheral neuropathies, paresthesia Nitrosoureas: BCNu, CCNu both cause pulmonary toxicity, phlebitis. CNS Alkylating agents Antimetabolites Microtubule targeting agents Topoisomerase inhibitors Anthracyclines Monoclonal antibodies Other agents Antimetabolites Inhibit DNA replication or repair by mimicking normal cell compounds; S phase specific Folate inhibitor: Methotrexate inhibits DHFR, prevents regeneration of THF Adjuvant leucovorin to protect healthy cells adjuvant Side effect is mucositis, myelosuppression Pyrimidine inhibitors 5-fluorouracil inhibits thymidylate synthetase Bolus dose causes myelosuppression Continuous dose causes GI problems mucositis, diarrhea Synergistic leucovorin potentate mechanism of action synergistic Capecitabine is essentially an oral prodrug for 5-FU Side effect: hand-foot syndrome - palms and hands and feet become red, can start blistering Cytarabine AraC is a DNA chain terminator Side effects: conjunctivitis and cerebellar neural defects The 7 in 7+3 chemotherapy Purine analog is 6-mercaptopurine Alkylating agents Antimetabolites Microtubule targeting agents Topoisomerase inhibitors Anthracyclines Monoclonal antibodies Other agents Microtubule targeting agents These drugs inhibit mitosis, specifically M phase Vinca alkaloids destroy microtubules, obviously preventing their function Vincristine, vinblastine, and vinorelbine Side effects: peripheral neuropathy, myelosuppressive blast others Fatal if given intrathecally Taxanes stabilize microtubules, preventing their function Paclitaxol, docetaxol Side effects: myelosuppression, peripheral neuropathies Hypersensitivity from diluent: Cremophor diluent in paclitaxel Tween80 in docetaxel Avoid hypersenitivity with abraxane, protein-bound paclitaxol particles less sensitivity but more neuropathy Topoisomerase inhibitors Topoisomerase I inhibitors prevent relaxation of supercoiled DNA Topotecan, irinotecan Both have side effect of myelosuppression Irinotecan causes diarrhea: “I ran to the can” Topoisomerase II inhibitors prevent recoiling of DNA after transcription Etoposide, teniposide Both have side effects of myelosuppression, mucositis, secondary malignancies AML Etoposide also causes hypotension Anthracyclines Various mechanisms of action: intercalate DNA, inhibit topo II, generate ROS, perhaps alkylation -rubicins: doxorubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, epirubicin Side effects: biventricular heart failure, necrotic with extravasation The 3 in 7+3 chemotherapy Monoclonal antibodies Origin determined from suffixes: -omab from mouse; -ximab is chimeric cross between human/mouse; -umab is humanized; -mumab is fully human mAb Target Treats: Toxicity Rituximab CD20 lymphoma - Trastuzumab Her-2 breast cancer - Cetuximab EGFR solid tumors initially for colorectal cancer Acneiform rash Bevacizumab VEGF solid tumors initially for colorectal/lung cancers GI perforation, Other chemotherapeutic agents Bleomycin causes lung toxicity Side effects: pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis cough, infiltrates Hormonal therapies Antiestrogens block estrogen stimulation of breast cancer Tamoxifen, fulvestrant, megestrol acetate Aromatase inhibitors block synthesis of estrogen Anastrozole, letrozole Antiandrogens block androgen stimulation of prostate cancer Other targets for prostate cancer are LHRH agonists prevent testosterone production, GnRH antagonist, CYP17 inhibitor

How anticancer drugs work – Molecular mechanism of action of doxorubicin or adriamycin

How anticancer drugs work – Molecular mechanism of action of doxorubicin or adriamycin

The cytotoxic antibiotics are a varied group of drugs that have various mechanisms of action. The group includes the anthracyclines and other drugs including actinomycin, bleomycin, plicamycin, and mitomycin. Doxorubicin and daunorubicin were the first two anthracyclines, and were obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius. Derivatives of these compounds include epirubicin and idarubicin. Other clinically used drugs in the anthracyline group are pirarubicin, aclarubicin, and mitoxantrone. The mechanisms of anthracyclines include: • DNA intercalation (molecules insert between the two strands of DNA) • Iron-mediated generation of highly reactive free radicals that damage cellular molecules • Topoisomerase inhibition • Induction of histone eviction from chromatin that deregulates DNA damage response, epigenome and transcriptome Actinomycin is a complex molecule that intercalates DNA and prevents RNA synthesis. Doxorubicin (INN, AAN, BAN, USAN; trade name Adriamycin; pegylated liposomal form trade name Doxil; nonpegylated liposomal form trade name Myocet), also known as hydroxydaunorubicin and hydroxydaunomycin, is a drug used in cancer chemotherapy and derived by chemical semisynthesis from a bacterial species. It is an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic closely related to the natural product daunomycin and like all anthracyclines, it works by intercalating DNA, with the most serious adverse effect being heart damage. It is commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers, including hematological malignancies (blood cancers, like leukemia and lymphoma), many types of carcinoma (solid tumors) and soft tissue sarcomas. It is often used in combination chemotherapy as a component of various chemotherapy regimens. * Crystal structure provides more accurate structural information but less accurate chemical information (such as bond order, polar contacts etc.). You should be careful about this.

Anthracyclines for HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer

Anthracyclines for HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer

The continued use of anthracyclines in the adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer is an area that has posed many questions in recent years. Moderator, Debu Tripathy, MD, explains that some physicians are considering abandoning the use of anthracyclines, due to recent clinical trials and the toxicity profile. For more from this discussion, visit http://www.onclive.com/peer-exchange/early-breast-cancer

Anthracycline-based chemotherapy may elevate myocardial extracellular volumes

Anthracycline-based chemotherapy may elevate myocardial extracellular volumes

William Hundley, MD and Professor of Internal Medicine-Cardiology at Wake Forest University School of Medicine discusses myocardial extracellular volume elevated in cancer survivors treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy compared to cancer-free peers and newly diagnosed and untreated cancer patients: a single-center observational study of the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) and cardio-oncology cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging studies at the American College of Cardiology's 64th Annual Scientific Sessions & Expo. MDLinx Conference Coverage - 64th Annual ACC Scientific Session & Expo: http://www.mdlinx.com/acc-2015/index.cfm MDLinx: http://www.mdlinx.com/ Smartest Doc & Board Exam Prep: http://www.thesmartestdoc.com/ M3 USA: http://usa.m3.com/ Follow MDLinx: Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/MDLinx Twitter - https://twitter.com/MDLinx Google+ - https://plus.google.com/+Mdlinx/

Anthracycline Meaning

Anthracycline Meaning

Video shows what anthracycline means. any of a class of antibiotic, chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer. Anthracycline Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say anthracycline. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary

Anthracycline Chemistry and Biology II Mode of Action, Clinical Aspects and New Drugs Topics in Curr

Anthracycline Chemistry and Biology II Mode of Action, Clinical Aspects and New Drugs Topics in Curr

Which Chemo Drugs Are Vesicants?

Which Chemo Drugs Are Vesicants?

Ivaccess list of irritant and vesicant medications. There are non chemo medications and solutions that have in the event of extravasation any cytotoxic drug, vesicant or irritant suspect stop infusion attempt to aspirate residual chemotherapy blood antidotes extravasations4 41. Reducing vesicant drug extravasations youtube. Vesicant chemotherapy – The management of rcn publishing. 6, info 14 mar 2008 describe how vesicant chemotherapy drugs can extravasate from implanted evaluate the signs and symptoms of a vesicant extravasation chemotherapy vesicants can be divided into 2 distinct groups dna binding or non dna binding drugs (table 3); Dna binding drugs (eg, anthracyclines) 29 oct 2014 vesicants and irritants what is the difference? 10 29 is referring to the leakage of vesicant fluid medications into the subcutaneous tissue 4 aug 2016 a vesicant is any solution or medication capable of causing tissue only antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs for cancer patients are vesicants 5 mar 2014 Chemocare. Uges jw, vollaard am, wilms eb, brouwer re. C6979&sa u&ved 0ahukewio0bwd0odvahwil48khwcsbve4chawcbkwaq&usg afqjcngrl1qp yajf u7ofpckqiwipajdg" target "_blank"vesicant chemotherapy – The management of rcn publishing. Aug 2017 chemotherapy vesicant & irritant properties and suggested management for extravasation. Chemotherapy group, vesicants are drugs that have the potential to cause blistering and ulceration [pdf] a url? Q journals. Always stop infusion of the causative medication vesicant chemotherapy agents include dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mechlorethamine, mitomycin, mitoxantrone, paclitaxel, streptozocin, tenoposide, vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine 4 'core curriculum oncology nursing' describes a as that can cause damage to cells and tissues if it leaks extravasation guideline woscan september 2009 page 1 must not be used for drugs or infusional 21 sep 2010 but chemo are only vesicants injuries. Overview, prevention and management of chemotherapy extravasation antineoplastic agents treatments. Extravasation injury from chemotherapy and other non uptodate. Vesicants and irritants lynn hadaway associatesmedications associates. Chemotherapy extravasation guideline beatson west of scotland vesicants not just chemo agents! vesicant drugs cdhb red book. Chemocare a url? Q hemonc wiki vesicant_. Outpatient oncology drug series doxorubicin is the infamous red chemotherapy sig newsletter nursing society. Vesicant & irritant chemotherapy. Intrapleural extravasation of epirubicin, 5 fluouracil, and cyclophosphamide, treated with dexrazoxane 10 feb 2016 chemotherapy administration carries safety concerns to both patients vesicants drugs that can result in tissue necrosis or formation 1 aug 2012 left untreated, vesicant potentially cause damage different ways i) the drug is oncology nursing society (ukons) north zone group, are have potential blistering ulceration blistering, sloughing skin local when they

Which Chemo Drugs Are Vesicants?

Which Chemo Drugs Are Vesicants?

Appendix 3 administration guidelines cancer care ontario. A url? Q hemonc wiki vesicant_. Anthracyclines although all vesicants can cause tissue damage upon extravasation, anthracyclines, such as daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and idarubicin, have the greatest vesicant potential when compared to other chemotherapeutic agents chemotherapy extravasation guideline woscan september 2009 page 1 must not be used for infusion of drugs or infusional in event any cytotoxic drug, irritant suspect stop attempt aspirate residual blood 20 jul 2017 most well known are (table 1), several non antineoplastic also some further classified into two groups dna binding classification according their ability local oncology nursing society (ukons) north zone group, that blistering ulceration blistering, sloughing skin they extravasate from vein inadvertently iv medication, ph, osm lacyclovir (zovirax), 10. Vesicant & irritant chemotherapy. Ivaccess list of irritant and vesicant medications. 14 mar 2008 describe how vesicant chemotherapy drugs can extravasate from implanted evaluate the signs and symptoms of a vesicant extravasation vesicant drugs and solutions reported to cause extravasation injury for the safe handling of hazardous medicines including cytotoxic chemotherapy (2014) chemotherapy vesicants can be divided into 2 distinct groups dna binding or non dna binding drugs (table 3); Dna binding drugs (eg, anthracyclines) Vesicant & irritant chemotherapy. Overview, prevention and management of chemotherapy extravasation guideline beatson west scotland vesicant drugs cdhb red book. Management of chemotherapy extravasation esmo eons clinical cen guideline module the european oncology nursing vesicant management rcn publishing. Chemotherapy drugs anti tumor antibiotics flashcards managing vesicant extravasations the oncologist alphamed pressgreat ormond street hospital. Drug that has potential to cause 1) blistering 2) severe tissue injury. Administration of cancer chemotherapy care nova scotia. 6, 316, infoamikacin, 3. Extravasation injury from chemotherapy and other non uptodate. Inpractice dna binding vs non vesicants. Hemonc a hematology injection site reactions managing side effects chemocarelivestrong. Vesicants and irritants lynn hadaway associates. 6, info when administering chemotherapy drugs intravenously to a patient, certain whether the drug(s) is a vesicant, irritant, or neither will have considerable bearing 29 oct 2014 vesicants and irritants what is the difference? 10 29 is referring to the leakage of vesicant fluid medications into the subcutaneous tissue therefore, nurses who are administering vesicant chemotherapy must understand the p is available on the sequencing of concomitant chemotherapy drugs intramuscular or subcutaneous cancer chemotherapy drug administration vesicant drugs administered by intermittent peripheral infusion (mini bag) must 3) usually occurs w close administration of chemo and radiation therapy (xrt) vesicant. Always s

Cancer Drugs - Learn with Visual Mnemonics!

Cancer Drugs - Learn with Visual Mnemonics!

Website: http://VisualLearner.net/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/visuallearnerstudios Twitter: https://twitter.com/VL_Studios Alright...today, we will go over some common classes of drugs used in treating cancer and examples within each class. To remind you of this, this picture is a scene out of the latest sci-fi movie starring my main man...VIN EASEL. The plot?...Vin Easel and his crew battling a giant cancer crab. Vinca alkaloids: Vinblastine, Vincristine First up, are the Vinca alkaloids represented by Vin Easel. VIN BLASTING the crab is VINBLASTINE, and VIN with the CROSS is VINCRISTINE. Antimetabolites - Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Mercaptopurine Next, we have the antimetabolites, represented by the T-Rex. The METH smoking T-REX is METH-O-TREX-ATE, his FLORAL shorts is FLUORO-URACIL, and his MERCEDES CAP is MER-CAP-TOPURINE. *we do not condone smoking meth* Taxanes: Paclitaxel Another class are the Taxanes, represented by the Tax Man. He’s is wearing a PACK of TAXES, which is PAC-LITAXEL. Alkylating Agents - Cyclophosphamide, Carboplatin, Cisplatin, Busulfan Lastly, we have the Alkylating agents, these are represented by the vehicles in the back line. The CYCLONE CYCLER on his PHOSPHATE bike is CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE. The CAR of PLATINUM is CARBOPLATIN, and his SISter car is CIS-PLATIN. The BUS wielding FANS is BUS-UL-FAN. Alright folks, that’s it for this video! To learn more about visual mnemonics and Cancer drugs, including mechanisms of action and side effects, please check out our website at VisualLearner.net. Happy studying!

Mechanism Of Action Of DOXORUBICIN "ALPHABEAT Team " Clinical Pharmacy Scops'13

Mechanism Of Action Of DOXORUBICIN "ALPHABEAT Team " Clinical Pharmacy Scops'13

Mechanism Of Action OF Doxorubicin IN a SIMPLE and CREATIVE Way, ALPHABEAT Team Clinical Pharmacy Scops'13 " 57357 hospital competition " Made by Mohamed Yehia

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