STS-51L Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion Investigation 1986 Presidential Commission

STS-51L Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion Investigation 1986 Presidential Commission

more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/astro/space_shuttle_news.html Space Shuttle Challenger Accident Investigation. Photo and TV Analysis Team Report of the STS-51L Data & Design Analysis Task Force, a documentation video for the Rogers Commission (the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident). Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Challenger_disaster The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster occurred on January 28, 1986, when the NASA Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger (OV-099) (mission STS-51-L) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the deaths of its seven crew members, which included five NASA astronauts and two Payload Specialists. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida at 11:38 EST (16:38 UTC). Disintegration of the vehicle began after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed at liftoff. The O-ring failure caused a breach in the SRB joint it sealed, allowing pressurized burning gas from within the solid rocket motor to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB aft field joint attachment hardware and external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB's aft field joint attachment and the structural failure of the external tank. Aerodynamic forces broke up the orbiter. The crew compartment and many other vehicle fragments were eventually recovered from the ocean floor after a lengthy search and recovery operation. The exact timing of the death of the crew is unknown; several crew members are known to have survived the initial breakup of the spacecraft. The shuttle had no escape system, and the impact of the crew compartment with the ocean surface was too violent to be survivable. The disaster resulted in a 32-month hiatus in the shuttle program and the formation of the Rogers Commission, a special commission appointed by United States President Ronald Reagan to investigate the accident. The Rogers Commission found NASA's organizational culture and decision-making processes had been key contributing factors to the accident. NASA managers had known contractor Morton Thiokol's design of the SRBs contained a potentially catastrophic flaw in the O-rings since 1977, but failed to address it properly. They also disregarded warnings (an example of "go fever") from engineers about the dangers of launching, posed by the low temperatures of that morning, and failed to adequately report these technical concerns to their superiors. What the Rogers Commission report did not highlight was that the vehicle was never certified to operate in temperatures that low. The O-rings, as well as many other critical components, had no test data to support any expectation of a successful launch in such conditions. Bob Ebeling from Thiokol delivered a biting analysis: "[W]e're only qualified to 40 degrees ...'what business does anyone even have thinking about 18 degrees, we're in no man's land.'" As a result of the disaster, the Air Force decided to cancel its plans to use the Shuttle for classified military satellite launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, deciding to use the Titan IV instead. Approximately 17 percent of Americans witnessed the launch live because of the presence of Payload Specialist Christa McAuliffe, who would have been the first teacher in space. Media coverage of the accident was extensive: one study reported that 85 percent of Americans surveyed had heard the news within an hour of the accident. The Challenger disaster has been used as a case study in many discussions of engineering safety and workplace ethics...

DFN:Reenlistment Bonus: MARADMIN 370/18 UNITED STATES 07.02.2018

DFN:Reenlistment Bonus: MARADMIN 370/18 UNITED STATES 07.02.2018

► Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/DefenseFlashNews ► CHECK OUT THIS 9000+ MORE VIDEOS: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgt2lndbOCnYwrhRgL3jhp_RKJ_I9XrPC Defense Flash News: Reenlistment Bonus: MARADMIN 370/18 UNITED STATES 07.02.2018 Courtesy Video Defense Media Activity - Marines This bulletin announces the SRB program and the BSSRB program authorized for FY19. With the advent of several new SRB programs, Marines are encouraged to thoroughly review the contents of this bulletin. "All Marines provide value to the team, but we need the very best Marines in critical field--like infantry squad leaders and aviation maintainers to stay in service and continue to lead, train, and prepare us to dominate the next fight." ~ Commandant of the Marine Corps Gen. Robert B. Neller. TAGS,Reenlistment,Benefits,Bonus,DMA,Marine Corps,Marines,Digital Engagement Team,MARADMIN 370/18,Retainment,SRB programs,BSSRB General tags:defense flash news,defence news,MILITARY,Weapons,Aircraft,Ships,Vehicles,Operations,air force,navy,marine,army,Snipers,Firefights,Afghanistan,Guns & Weapons,Iraq,Explosions,SpecOps,Military Aircraft,Ships & Subs,Syria,Global Hot Spots,Vehicles,Air Force,Marine Corps,Navy,Army,Coast Guard,Events,Army Deployment,Technology,Military News,Fitness,Special Operations,Entertainment, united states,usa,UNITED KINGDOM,uk,china,canada,australia,france,GERMANY,japan,russia,india,technology in defense,new technology in defence,Observation Post,BBC,Bloomberg,Stars and Stripes,Fox News,CNN,MSNBC,USA Today,PBS,ABC News,The Daily Show,Leatherneck,NPR,The Colbert Report,Slate,The Economist,CBS News,The Washington post,Military Times,military embedded systems magazine,Navy Times,The New York Times,Marine Corps Gazette,MSN,The Guardian,The New Yorker,Politico,APG News,Business Insider,Military Spouse Magazine,Quantico Sentry,Gulf Defender,DC Military,Marines.mil. Marine Corps Times,The Wallstreet Journal,Google News,The Blaze,Yahoo News,Mother Jones,Breitbart,The Huffington Post,Think Progress,Drudge Report,Daily KOS,The Sean Hannity show,Al Jezeera America,The Ed Shultz Show,The Glenn Beck Program,The Rush Limbaugh Show,Vietnow National Magazine,Veterans of foreign magazine,Northwest Airlifter,Navy Compass,Military Review magazine,GI Jobs magazine,Hilltop Times,Defenses News,Annapolis Trident,1st Infantry Division Post

Putting Training & Trust to the Test

Putting Training & Trust to the Test

Do you know what it takes to be a U.S. Army Soldier? These Soldiers discuss how teamwork and training lead to successful missions out in the field.

Russian soldiers perform US army song

Russian soldiers perform US army song

Слава России Слава Сербии

"Spectacular explosion during Delta 2 rocket launch", Cape Canaveral. January 17, 1997

"Spectacular explosion during Delta 2 rocket launch", Cape Canaveral. January 17, 1997

FROM KSC VISITOR CENTER COMPLEX INFO. 07/02/15: "A Blast from Above": The failure and following explosion of a Delta II rocket shortly after launching on January 17, 1997 was quite an experience for the space workers in the blockhouse. What they saw once they were cleared to leave the structure was shocking. VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_aHEit-SqA Delta II Explosion Plume Analysis Report fom NASA: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20000094557.pdf WIKIPEDIA: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPS_IIR-1 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER VISITOR CENTER ACTIVITIES: https://www.kennedyspacecenter.com/

CHALLENGER -

CHALLENGER -

The Nothing Song Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. Its maiden flight was on April 4, 1983, and it completed nine missions before breaking apart 73 seconds after the launch of its tenth mission, STS-51-L on January 28, 1986, resulting in the death of all seven crew members. (For more on the Challenger disaster, see Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.) The accident led to a two-and-a-half year grounding of the shuttle fleet, with missions resuming in 1988 with the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-26. Challenger itself was replaced by the Space Shuttle Endeavour, which first launched in 1992. History Challenger was named after HMS Challenger, a British corvette which carried out a pioneering global marine research expedition in the 1870s. Construction Because of the low production of Orbiters, the Space Shuttle program decided to build a vehicle as a Static Test Article, STA-099, that could later be converted to a flight vehicle. In order to prevent damage during structural testing, qualification tests were performed to a factor of safety of 1.2 times the design limit loads. The qualification tests were used to validate computational models, and compliance with the required 1.4 factor of safety was shown by analysis. NASA planned to refit the prototype orbiter Enterprise (OV-101), used for flight testing, as the second operational orbiter. However, design changes made during construction of the first orbiter, Columbia (OV-102), would have required extensive rework. Because STA-099's qualification testing prevented damage, NASA found that rebuilding STA-099 as OV-099 would be less expensive than refitting Enterprise. Challenger (and the orbiters built after it) had fewer tiles in its Thermal Protection System than Columbia. Most of the tiles on the payload bay doors, upper wing surface and rear fuselage surface were replaced with DuPont white nomex felt insulation. This modification allowed Challenger to carry 2,500 lb (1,100 kg) more payload than Columbia. Challenger was also the first orbiter to have a head-up display system for use in the descent phase of a mission. [edit] Flights and modifications After its first flight in April 1983, Challenger quickly became the workhorse of NASA's Space Shuttle fleet, flying far more missions per year than Columbia. In 1983 and 1984, Challenger flew on 85% of all Space Shuttle missions. Even when the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis joined the fleet, Challenger remained in heavy use with three missions a year from 1983-85. Challenger, along with Discovery, was modified at Kennedy Space Center to be able to carry the Centaur-G upper-stage in its payload bay. Had STS-51-L been successful, Challenger's next mission would have been the deployment of the Ulysses probe with the Centaur to study the polar regions of the Sun. Challenger's many spaceflight accomplishments included the first American woman, African-American, and Canadian in space, three Spacelab missions, and the first night launch and landing of a Space Shuttle. Challenger was also the first space shuttle to be destroyed in an accident during a mission. The collected debris of the vessel are currently stored in decommissioned missile silos at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. From time to time, further pieces of debris from the orbiter wash up on the Florida coast. When this happens, they are collected and transported to the silos for storage. Because of its early loss, Challenger was the only space shuttle that never wore the NASA "meatball" logo. Loss of Challenger The crew of the Challenger's final flight.Main article: Space Shuttle Challenger disaster Challenger was destroyed in the second minute of STS-51-L, the orbiter's tenth mission, on January 28, 1986 at 11:38:00 a.m. EST ("51-L". http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/m... ), when an O-ring seal on its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed. The O-rings failed to seal due to a variety of factors, including unusually cold temperatures.[4] This failure allowed a plume of flame to leak out of the SRB and impinge on both the external fuel tank (ET) and SRB aft attachment strut. This caused both structural failure of the ET and the SRB pivoting into the orbiter and ET. The orbiter's attitude rotated out of the normal flight profile and the vehicle assembly then broke apart under aerodynamic loads.

Journey to the Sun || Bishow Ghatana || सूर्य सम्मको यात्रा

Journey to the Sun || Bishow Ghatana || सूर्य सम्मको यात्रा

Journey to the Sun Launch: Aug. 12, 2018 Launch Site: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida Launch Vehicle: Delta IV-Heavy with Upper Stage In order to unlock the mysteries of the Sun's atmosphere, Parker Solar Probe will use Venus’ gravity during seven flybys over nearly seven years to gradually bring its orbit closer to the Sun. The spacecraft will fly through the Sun’s atmosphere as close as 3.8 million miles to our star’s surface, well within the orbit of Mercury and more than seven times closer than any spacecraft has come before. (Earth’s average distance to the Sun is 93 million miles.) Flying into the outermost part of the Sun's atmosphere, known as the corona, for the first time, Parker Solar Probe will employ a combination of in situ measurements and imaging to revolutionize our understanding of the corona and expand our knowledge of the origin and evolution of the solar wind. It will also make critical contributions to our ability to forecast changes in Earth's space environment that affect life and technology on Earth.

★ Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster - Short Documentary - HD

★ Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster - Short Documentary - HD

The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster occurred on January 28, 1986, when Space Shuttle Challenger (mission STS-51-L) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the deaths of its seven crew members. My photos: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/105656643463219506384/+aheli ★ The Largest Stars in the Universe | Infographic Animation ► https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JqAJnrL27OY ★ The Most Astounding Fact - Neil deGrasse Tyson | Kinetic ►Typography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p2DXqJ7mjKY ★ TOP 10 - Best of Hubble Space Telescope - 2015 ► http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lmx19_0GX8o The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida at 11:38 EST (16:38 UTC). Disintegration of the vehicle began after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed at liftoff. The O-ring failure caused a breach in the SRB joint it sealed, allowing pressurized hot gas from within the solid rocket motor to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB attachment hardware and external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB's aft attachment and the structural failure of the external tank. Aerodynamic forces broke up the orbiter. The crew compartment and many other vehicle fragments were eventually recovered from the ocean floor after a lengthy search and recovery operation. The exact timing of the death of the crew is unknown; several crew members are known to have survived the initial breakup of the spacecraft. The shuttle had no escape system, and the impact of the crew compartment with the ocean surface was too violent to be survivable. The disaster resulted in a 32-month hiatus in the shuttle program and the formation of the Rogers Commission, a special commission appointed by United States President Ronald Reagan to investigate the accident. The Rogers Commission found NASA's organizational culture and decision-making processes had been key contributing factors to the accident. NASA managers had known contractor Morton Thiokol's design of the SRBs contained a potentially catastrophic flaw in the O-rings since 1977, but failed to address it properly. They also disregarded warnings (an example of "go fever") from engineers about the dangers of launching posed by the low temperatures of that morning and had failed in adequately reporting these technical concerns to their superiors. What Rogers did not highlight was that the vehicle was never certified to operate in temperatures that low. The O-rings, as well as many other critical components, had no test data to support any expectation of a successful launch in such conditions. Bob Ebeling from Thiokol delivered a biting analysis: "[W]e're only qualified to 40 degrees ...'what business does anyone even have thinking about 18 degrees, we're in no man's land.'" As a result of the disaster, the Air Force decided to cancel its plans to use the Shuttle for classified military satellite launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, deciding to use the Titan IV instead. Approximately 17 percent of Americans witnessed the launch live because of the presence of crew member Christa McAuliffe, the first member of the Teacher in Space Project, who would have been the first teacher in space. Media coverage of the accident was extensive: one study reported that 85 percent of Americans surveyed had heard the news within an hour of the accident. In memory of the crew of space shuttle Challenger. RIP The clip is from "When We Left Earth: The NASA Missions (2008)"

CHALLENGER - Disaster (1986)

CHALLENGER - Disaster (1986)

Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. Its maiden flight was on April 4, 1983, and it completed nine missions before breaking apart 73 seconds after the launch of its tenth mission, STS-51-L on January 28, 1986, resulting in the death of all seven crew members. (For more on the Challenger disaster, see Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.) The accident led to a two-and-a-half year grounding of the shuttle fleet, with missions resuming in 1988 with the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-26. Challenger itself was replaced by the Space Shuttle Endeavour, which first launched in 1992. History Challenger was named after HMS Challenger, a British corvette which carried out a pioneering global marine research expedition in the 1870s. Construction Because of the low production of Orbiters, the Space Shuttle program decided to build a vehicle as a Static Test Article, STA-099, that could later be converted to a flight vehicle. In order to prevent damage during structural testing, qualification tests were performed to a factor of safety of 1.2 times the design limit loads. The qualification tests were used to validate computational models, and compliance with the required 1.4 factor of safety was shown by analysis. NASA planned to refit the prototype orbiter Enterprise (OV-101), used for flight testing, as the second operational orbiter. However, design changes made during construction of the first orbiter, Columbia (OV-102), would have required extensive rework. Because STA-099's qualification testing prevented damage, NASA found that rebuilding STA-099 as OV-099 would be less expensive than refitting Enterprise. Challenger (and the orbiters built after it) had fewer tiles in its Thermal Protection System than Columbia. Most of the tiles on the payload bay doors, upper wing surface and rear fuselage surface were replaced with DuPont white nomex felt insulation. This modification allowed Challenger to carry 2,500 lb (1,100 kg) more payload than Columbia. Challenger was also the first orbiter to have a head-up display system for use in the descent phase of a mission. Flights and modifications After its first flight in April 1983, Challenger quickly became the workhorse of NASA's Space Shuttle fleet, flying far more missions per year than Columbia. In 1983 and 1984, Challenger flew on 85% of all Space Shuttle missions. Even when the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis joined the fleet, Challenger remained in heavy use with three missions a year from 1983-85. Challenger, along with Discovery, was modified at Kennedy Space Center to be able to carry the Centaur-G upper-stage in its payload bay. Had STS-51-L been successful, Challenger's next mission would have been the deployment of the Ulysses probe with the Centaur to study the polar regions of the Sun. Challenger's many spaceflight accomplishments included the first American woman, African-American, and Canadian in space, three Spacelab missions, and the first night launch and landing of a Space Shuttle. Challenger was also the first space shuttle to be destroyed in an accident during a mission. The collected debris of the vessel are currently stored in decommissioned missile silos at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. From time to time, further pieces of debris from the orbiter wash up on the Florida coast. When this happens, they are collected and transported to the silos for storage. Because of its early loss, Challenger was the only space shuttle that never wore the NASA "meatball" logo. Loss of Challenger The crew of the Challenger's final flight.Main article: Space Shuttle Challenger disaster Challenger was destroyed in the second minute of STS-51-L, the orbiter's tenth mission, on January 28, 1986 at 11:38:00 a.m. EST ("51-L". http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/missions/51-l/mission-51-l.html. ), when an O-ring seal on its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed. The O-rings failed to seal due to a variety of factors, including unusually cold temperatures.[4] This failure allowed a plume of flame to leak out of the SRB and impinge on both the external fuel tank (ET) and SRB aft attachment strut. This caused both structural failure of the ET and the SRB pivoting into the orbiter and ET. The orbiter's attitude rotated out of the normal flight profile and the vehicle assembly then broke apart under aerodynamic loads.

Toxic Propellant Hazards ~ 1966 NASA KSC; Hydrazine Rocket Fuel & Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidizer

Toxic Propellant Hazards ~ 1966 NASA KSC; Hydrazine Rocket Fuel & Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidizer

Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Chemistry playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_KyuOalV6rwHjo810Zaa6xq NASA & Space Miscellany playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_K3mK1TZNCkmdD-JMZYGew1 more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net NASA training film for workers handling hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide at Kennedy Space Center and other NASA installations. "This NASA safety film demonstrates the dangers of rocket fuels, including hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, and instructs workers in their safe handling." Film produced by Technicolor, Inc. NASA film KSC-6. Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypergolic_propellant Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other. The two propellant components usually consist of a fuel and an oxidizer. Although commonly used hypergolic propellants are difficult to handle because of their extreme toxicity and/or corrosiveness, they can be stored as liquids at room temperature and hypergolic engines are easy to ignite reliably and repeatedly. In contemporary usage, the terms "hypergol" or "hypergolic propellant" usually mean the most common such propellant combination, dinitrogen tetroxide plus hydrazine and/or its relatives monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine... History Soviet rocket engine researcher Valentin Glushko experimented with hypergolic fuel as early as 1931. It was initially used for "chemical ignition" of engines, starting kerosene/nitric acid engines with an initial charge of phosphorus dissolved in carbon disulfide. Starting in 1935, Prof. O. Lutz of the German Aeronautical Institute experimented with over 1000 self-igniting propellants. He assisted the Walter Company with the development of C-Stoff which ignited with concentrated hydrogen peroxide... Hypergolic propellants were discovered independently, for the third time, in the U.S. by GALCIT and Navy Annapolis researchers in 1940. They developed engines powered by aniline and nitric acid. Robert Goddard, Reaction Motors and Curtiss-Wright worked on aniline/nitric acid engines in the early 1940s, for small missiles and jet assisted take-off (JATO)... Advantages Hypergolic rockets are usually simple and reliable because they need no ignition system... The most common hypergolic fuels, hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, and oxidizer, nitrogen tetroxide, are all liquid at ordinary temperatures and pressures. They are therefore sometimes called storable liquid propellants. They are suitable for use in spacecraft missions lasting many years... Because hypergolic rockets do not need an ignition system, they can fire any number of times by simply opening and closing the propellant valves until the propellants are exhausted and are therefore uniquely suited for spacecraft maneuvering... Disadvantages Relative to their mass, traditional hypergolic propellants are less energetic than such cryogenic propellant combinations as liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen or liquid methane / liquid oxygen. A launch vehicle that uses hypergolic propellant must therefore carry a greater mass of fuel than one that uses these cryogenic fuels. The corrosivity, toxicity, and carcinogeneity of traditional hypergolics necessitate expensive safety precautions. Hypergolic combinations Common - Aerozine 50 + nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) – widely used in historical American rockets, including the Titan 2; all engines in the Apollo Lunar Module; and the Service Propulsion System in the Apollo Service Module. Aerozine 50 is a mixture of 50% UDMH and 50% straight hydrazine (N2H4). - Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) + nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) – frequently used by the Russians, such as in the Proton (rocket family) and supplied by them to France for the Ariane 1 first and second stages (replaced with UH 25); ISRO PSLV second stage. - UH 25 is a mixture of 25% hydrazine hydrate and 75% UDMH. - Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) + nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) – smaller engines and reaction control thrusters:[citation needed] Apollo Command Module reaction control system; Space Shuttle OMS and RCS; Ariane 5 EPS; Draco thrusters used by the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. The corrosiveness of nitrogen tetroxide can be reduced by adding several percent nitric oxide (NO), forming mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON)...

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